Advertisement

Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 321–336 | Cite as

A New Look at the Relationship Between Job Stress and Organizational Commitment: a Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

  • Samir A. AbdelmotelebEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Based mainly on the results of cross-sectional studies, the dominant trend in the extant literature on job stress and organizational commitment posits a one-way directional relationship in which job stress negatively impacts organizational commitment. Moreover, research shows that job satisfaction fully mediates this relationship. The present study revisits the conceptual and methodological issues related to these relationships by employing a three-wave longitudinal design with 252 employees in two industrial organizations to test a model that involves a mutual relationship between job stress and organizational commitment in which job satisfaction partially mediates this reciprocal relationship. This proposed model was tested against and was preferable to numerous competing models. This study presents a new framework with more elaborate relationships between job stress, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction. It contributes to the current body of knowledge by revealing a dynamic relationship between organizational commitment and job stress (i.e., a feedback loop) and the dual mediating roles of job satisfaction in this mutual relationship, thereby providing greater insight into the mechanism by which these variables are interrelated. On a practical level, based on the supported mutual relationships between job stress, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction, focusing on the factors that commonly have beneficial effects on these three constructs is expected to intensify employees’ well-being and provide more flexibility to intervening organizational actions aimed at managing these variables.

Keywords

Job stress Organizational commitment Job satisfaction Longitudinal study 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author is grateful to the associate editor Seth Kaplan and the two anonymous reviewers for their insightful and constructive feedback that contributed to improving this article.

References

  1. Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: An examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49(3), 252–276.Google Scholar
  3. Antón, C. (2009). The impact of role stress on workers’ behaviour through job satisfaction and organizational commitment. International Journal of Psychology, 44(3), 187–194.Google Scholar
  4. Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20–39.Google Scholar
  5. Bacharach, S. B., Bamberger, P., & Conley, S. (1991). Work-home conflict among nurses and engineers: Mediating the impact of role stress on burnout and satisfaction at work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 12(1), 39–53.Google Scholar
  6. Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309–328.Google Scholar
  7. Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2014). Job demands–resources theory wellbeing. Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Bal, P. M., De Lange, A. H., Jansen, P. G. W., & Van Der Velde, M. E. G. (2008). Psychological contract breach and job attitudes: A meta-analysis of age as a moderator. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72(1), 143–158.Google Scholar
  9. Bateman, T. S., & Strasser, S. (1984). A longitudinal analysis of the antecedents of organizational commitment. The Academy of Management Journal, 27(1), 95–112.Google Scholar
  10. Brenda, S. L., Anthony, T., & Verena, M. (2006). Causal inferences between participation in decision making, task attributes, work effort, rewards, job satisfaction and commitment. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 27(5), 399–414.Google Scholar
  11. Brief, A. P., Burke, M. J., George, J. M., Robinson, B. S., & Webster, J. (1988). Should negative affectivity remain an unmeasured variable in the study of job stress? Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(2), 193–198.Google Scholar
  12. Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185–216.Google Scholar
  13. Brunetto, Y., Teo, S. T. T., Shacklock, K., & Farr-Wharton, R. (2012). Emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, well-being and engagement: Explaining organisational commitment and turnover intentions in policing. Human Resource Management Journal, 22(4), 428–441.Google Scholar
  14. Burke, P. J. (1980). The self: Measurement requirements from an interactionist perspective. Social Psychology Quarterly, 43(1), 18–29.Google Scholar
  15. Burke, P. J., & Reitzes, D. C. (1991). An identity theory approach to commitment. Social Psychology Quarterly, 54(3), 239–251.Google Scholar
  16. Bussing, A., Bissels, T., Fuchs, V., & Perrar, K.-M. (1999). A dynamic model of work satisfaction: Qualitative approaches. Human Relations, 52(8), 999–1028.Google Scholar
  17. Caesens, G., & Stinglhamber, F. (2014). The relationship between perceived organizational support and work engagement: The role of self-efficacy and its outcomes. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology, 64(5), 259–267.Google Scholar
  18. Chen, S., Westman, M., & Hobfoll, S. E. (2015). The commerce and crossover of resources: Resource conservation in the service of resilience. Stress and Health, 31(2), 95–105.Google Scholar
  19. Cheung, G. W., & Lau, R. S. (2008). Testing mediation and suppression effects of latent variables: Bootstrapping with structural equation models. Organizational Research Methods, 11(2), 296–325.Google Scholar
  20. Chordiya, R., Sabharwal, M., & Goodman, D. (2017). Affective organizational commitment and job satisfaction: A cross-national comparative study. Public Administration, 95(1), 178–195.Google Scholar
  21. Coffman, D. L., & MacCallum, R. C. (2005). Using parcels to convert path analysis models into latent variable models. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 40(2), 235–259.Google Scholar
  22. Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(2), 278–321.Google Scholar
  23. Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing mediational models with longitudinal data: Questions and tips in the use of structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(4), 558–577.Google Scholar
  24. Cole, M. S., & Bruch, H. (2006). Organizational identity strength, identification, and commitment and their relationships to turnover intention: Does organizational hierarchy matter? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(5), 585–605.Google Scholar
  25. Cooper, C. L., & Cartwright, S. (1994). Healthy mind; healthy organization—A proactive approach to occupational stress. Human Relations, 47(4), 455–471.Google Scholar
  26. Cramer, D. (1996). Job satisfaction and organizational continuance commitment: A two-wave panel study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(4), 389–400.Google Scholar
  27. Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Byrne, Z. S. (2003). The relationship of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 160–169.Google Scholar
  28. Currivan, D. B. (1999). The causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment in models of employee turnover. Human Resource Management Review, 9(4), 495–524.Google Scholar
  29. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  30. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499–512.Google Scholar
  31. Dewe, P. J., & Ng, H. A. (1999). Exploring the relationship between primary appraisal and coping using a work setting. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 14(3), 397–418.Google Scholar
  32. Dewe, P. J., O’Driscoll, M. P., & Cooper, C. L. (2010). Coping with work stress: A review and critique. West Sussex: Wiley & Sons Ltd.Google Scholar
  33. Dewe, P. J., O’Driscoll, M. P., & Cooper, C. L. (2012). Theories of psychological stress at work. In R. J. Gatchel & I. Z. Schultz (Eds.), Handbook of occupational health and wellness (pp. 23–38). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Doreen, S. K. T., & Syed, A. (1998). Organizational commitment and experienced burnout: An exploratory study from a Chinese cultural perspective. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 6(4), 310–333.Google Scholar
  35. Dormann, C., & Zapf, D. (2001). Job satisfaction: A meta-analysis of stabilities. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(5), 483–504.Google Scholar
  36. Elangovan, A. R. (2001). Causal ordering of stress, satisfaction and commitment, and intention to quit: A structural equations analysis. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(4), 159–165.Google Scholar
  37. Eugene, F. S.-R., & Patrick, J. R. (2004). Inference problems with hierarchical multiple regression-based tests of mediating effects. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 23(23), 249–290.Google Scholar
  38. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218–226.Google Scholar
  39. Froese, F. J., & Xiao, S. (2012). Work values, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in China. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(10), 2144–2162.Google Scholar
  40. Glazer, S., & Beehr, T. A. (2005). Consistency of implications of three role stressors across four countries. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(5), 467–487.Google Scholar
  41. Glazer, S., & Kruse, B. (2008). The role of organizational commitment in occupational stress models. International Journal of Stress Management, 15(4), 329–344.Google Scholar
  42. Gorgievski, M. J., & Hobfoll, S. E. (2008). Work can burn us out or fire us up: Conservation of resources in burnout and engagement. In J. R. B. Halbesleben (Ed.), Handbook of stress and burnout in health care (pp. 7–22). New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  43. Gottman, J. M., & Rushe, R. H. (1993). The analysis of change: Issues, fallacies, and new ideas. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(6), 907–910.Google Scholar
  44. Greenaway, K. H., Haslam, S. A., Cruwys, T., Branscombe, N. R., Ysseldyk, R., & Heldreth, C. (2015). From “we” to “me”: Group identification enhances perceived personal control with consequences for health and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(1), 53–74.Google Scholar
  45. Greguras, G. J., & Diefendorff, J. M. (2009). Different fits satisfy different needs: Linking person-environment fit to employee commitment and performance using self-determination theory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 465–477.Google Scholar
  46. Hakanen, J. J., Schaufeli, W. B., & Ahola, K. (2008). The job demands-resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement. Work and Stress, 22(3), 224–241.Google Scholar
  47. Herrbach, O. (2006). A matter of feeling? The affective tone of organizational commitment and identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(5), 629–643.Google Scholar
  48. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524.Google Scholar
  49. Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4), 307–324.Google Scholar
  50. Hobfoll, S. E., Stevens, N. R., & Zalta, A. K. (2015). Expanding the science of resilience: Conserving resources in the aid of adaptation. Psychological Inquiry, 26, 174–180.Google Scholar
  51. Holroyd, K. A., & Lazarus, R. S. (1982). Stress, coping and somatic adaptation. In L. Goldberger & S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (pp. 21–35). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  52. Hu, L.-t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55.Google Scholar
  53. Huang, T.-C., & Hsiao, W.-J. (2007). The causal relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 35(9), 1265–1276.Google Scholar
  54. Hunter, L. W., & Thatcher, S. M. B. (2007). Feeling the heat: Effects of stress, commitment, and job experience on job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 953–968.Google Scholar
  55. Jamal, M. (1990). Relationship of job stress and type-a behavior to employees’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment, psychosomatic health problems, and turnover motivation. Human Relations, 43(8), 727–738.Google Scholar
  56. Jamal, M. (2005). Short communication: Personal and organizational outcomes related to job stress and type-a behavior: A study of Canadian and Chinese employees. Stress and Health, 21, 129–137.Google Scholar
  57. Johnson, R. E., Chang, C.-H., & Yang, L.-Q. (2010). Commitment and motivation at work: The relevance of employee identity and regulatory focus. Academy of Management Review, 35(2), 226–245.Google Scholar
  58. Jonge, J. D., Dormann, C., Janssen, P. P. M., Dollard, M. F., Landeweerd, J. A., & Nijhuis, F. J. N. (2001). Testing reciprocal relationships between job characteristics and psychological well-being: A cross-lagged structural equation model. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(1), 29–46.Google Scholar
  59. Kalliath, T. J., O'Driscoll, M. P., & Gillespie, D. F. (1998). The relationship between burnout and organizational commitment in two samples of health professionals. Work and Stress, 12(2), 179–185.Google Scholar
  60. Kell, H. J., & Motowidlo, S. J. (2012). Deconstructing organizational commitment: Associations among its affective and cognitive components, personality antecedents, and behavioral outcomes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(1), 213–251.Google Scholar
  61. Klein, H. J., Molloy, J. C., & Brinsfield, C. T. (2012). Reconceptualizing workplace commitment to redress a stretched construct: Revisiting assumptions and removing confounds. Academy of Management Review, 37(1), 130–151.Google Scholar
  62. Leavitt, K., Mitchell, T. R., & Peterson, J. (2010). Theory pruning: Strategies to reduce our dense theoretical landscape. Organizational Research Methods, 13(4), 644–667.Google Scholar
  63. Lizano, E. L., & Mor Barak, M. (2015). Job burnout and affective wellbeing: A longitudinal study of burnout and job satisfaction among public child welfare workers. Children and Youth Services Review, 55(Supplement C), 18–28.Google Scholar
  64. Majchrzak, A., & Cotton, J. (1988). A longitudinal study of adjustment to technological change: From mass to computer-automated batch production. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61(1), 43–66.Google Scholar
  65. Mason, W. A., Conrey, F. R., & Smith, E. R. (2007). Situating social influence processes: Dynamic, multidirectional flows of influence within social networks. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11(3), 279–300.Google Scholar
  66. Mathieu, J. E. (1991). A cross-level nonrecursive model of the antecedents of organizational commitment and satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(5), 607–618.Google Scholar
  67. Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 171–194.Google Scholar
  68. Mauno, S., Kinnunen, U., & Ruokolainen, M. (2007). Job demands and resources as antecedents of work engagement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(1), 149–171.Google Scholar
  69. Maxwell, S. E., & Cole, D. A. (2007). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation. Psychological Methods, 12(1), 23–44.Google Scholar
  70. Maxwell, S. E., Cole, D. A., & Mitchell, M. A. (2011). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation: Partial and complete mediation under an autoregressive model. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 46(5), 816–841.Google Scholar
  71. Meier, L. L., & Spector, P. E. (2013). Reciprocal effects of work stressors and counterproductive work behavior: A five-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(3), 529–539.Google Scholar
  72. Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538–551.Google Scholar
  73. Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20–52.Google Scholar
  74. Meyer, J. P., & Maltin, E. R. (2010). Employee commitment and well-being: A critical review, theoretical framework and research agenda. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77(2), 323–337.Google Scholar
  75. Moliner, C., Martínez-Tur, V., Peiró, J. M., Ramos, J., & Cropanzano, R. (2005). Relationships between organizational justice and burnout at the work-unit level. International Journal of Stress Management, 12(2), 99–116.Google Scholar
  76. Motowidlo, S. J., Packard, J. S., & Manning, M. R. (1986). Occupational stress: Its causes and consequences for job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(4), 618–629.Google Scholar
  77. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2012). Mplus 7.Google Scholar
  78. Panaccio, A., & Vandenberghe, C. (2009). Perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and psychological well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(2), 224–236.Google Scholar
  79. Parasuraman, S., & Alutto, J. A. (1984). Sources and outcomes of stress in organizational settings: Toward the development of a structural model. Academy of Management Journal, 27(2), 330–350.Google Scholar
  80. Pitts, S. C., West, S. G., & Tein, J.-Y. (1996). Longitudinal measurement models in evaluation research: Examining stability and change. Evaluation and Program Planning, 19(4), 333–350.Google Scholar
  81. Ployhart, R. E., & Vandenberg, R. J. (2010). Longitudinal research: The theory, design, and analysis of change. Journal of Management, 36(1), 94–120.Google Scholar
  82. Podsakoff, N. P., LePine, J. A., & LePine, M. A. (2007). Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 438–454.Google Scholar
  83. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.Google Scholar
  84. Rayton, B. A. (2006). Examining the interconnection of job satisfaction and organizational commitment: An application of the bivariate probit model. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(1), 139–154.Google Scholar
  85. Reilly, N. P. (1994). Exploring a paradox: Commitment as a moderator of the stressor-burnout relationship. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24(5), 397–414.Google Scholar
  86. Riggle, R. J., Edmondson, D. R., & Hansen, J. D. (2009). A meta-analysis of the relationship between perceived organizational support and job outcomes: 20 years of research. Journal of Business Research, 62(10), 1027–1030.Google Scholar
  87. Rindfleisch, A., Malter, A. J., Ganesan, S., & Moorman, C. (2008). Cross-sectional versus longitudinal survey research: Concepts, findings, and guidelines. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(3), 261–279.Google Scholar
  88. Rivkin, W., Diestel, S., & Schmidt, K. H. (2015). Affective commitment as a moderator of the adverse relationships between day-specific self-control demands and psychological well-being. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 88(Supplement C), 185–194.Google Scholar
  89. Robinson, S. L. (1996). Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(4), 574–599.Google Scholar
  90. Rogosa, D., Brandt, D., & Zimowski, M. (1982). A growth curve approach to the measurement of change. Psychological Bulletin, 92(3), 726–748.Google Scholar
  91. Rothbard, N. P., & Edwards, J. R. (2003). Investment in work and family roles: A test of identity and utilitarian motives. Personnel Psychology, 56(3), 699–729.Google Scholar
  92. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.Google Scholar
  93. Sacramento, C. A., Fay, D., & West, M. A. (2013). Workplace duties or opportunities? Challenge stressors, regulatory focus, and creativity. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 121(2), 141–157.Google Scholar
  94. Selig, J. P., & Preacher, K. J. (2009). Mediation models for longitudinal data in developmental research. Research in Human Development, 6(2–3), 144–164.Google Scholar
  95. Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Somers, M. J. (2009). The combined influence of affective, continuance and normative commitment on employee withdrawal. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(1), 75–81.Google Scholar
  97. Spector, P. E., Chen, P. Y., & O'Connell, B. J. (2000a). A longitudinal study of relations between job stressors and job strains while controlling for prior negative affectivity and strains. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(2), 211–218.Google Scholar
  98. Spector, P. E., Zapf, D., Chen, P. Y., & Frese, M. (2000b). Why negative affectivity should not be controlled in job stress research: Don’t throw out the baby with the bath water. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(1), 79–95.Google Scholar
  99. Steffens, N. K., Haslam, S. A., Schuh, S. C., Jetten, J., & Dick, R. V. (2017). A meta-analytic review of social identification and health in organizational contexts. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 21(4), 303–335.Google Scholar
  100. Stryker, S. (1980). Symbolic interactionism: A social structural version. Menlo Park: Cummin.Google Scholar
  101. Stryker, S., & Burke, P. J. (2000). The past, present, and future of an identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(4), 284–297.Google Scholar
  102. Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46(2), 259–293.Google Scholar
  103. Thoits, P. A. (2013). Self, identity, stress, and mental health. In C. S. Aneshensel, J. C. Phelan, & A. Bierman (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of mental health (pp. 357–377). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.Google Scholar
  104. Tourigny, L., Baba, V. V., Han, J., & Wang, X. (2013). Emotional exhaustion and job performance: The mediating role of organizational commitment. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(3), 514–532.Google Scholar
  105. Um, M.-Y., & Harrison, D. F. (1998). Role stressors, burnout, mediators, and job satisfaction: A stress-strain-outcome model and an empirical test. Social Work Research, 22(2), 100–115.Google Scholar
  106. van Knippenberg, D., & Sleebos, E. (2006). Organizational identification versus organizational commitment: Self-definition, social exchange, and job attitudes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(5), 571–584.Google Scholar
  107. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (1992). Examining the causal order of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of Management, 18(1), 153–167.Google Scholar
  108. Viswesvaran, C., Sanchez, J. I., & Fisher, J. (1999). The role of social support in the process of work stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54(2), 314–334.Google Scholar
  109. Wang, Q., Bowling, N. A., & Eschleman, K. J. (2010). A meta-analytic examination of work and general locus of control. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4), 761–768.Google Scholar
  110. Wasti, S. A., & Can, O. (2008). Affective and normative commitment to organization, supervisor, and coworkers: Do collectivist values matter? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(3), 404–413.Google Scholar
  111. Weinstein, N., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). A self-determination theory approach to understanding stress incursion and responses. Stress and Health, 27(1), 4–17.Google Scholar
  112. Wiley, M. G. (1991). Gender, work, and stress: The potential impact of role-identity salience and commitment. Sociological Quarterly, 32(4), 495–510.Google Scholar
  113. Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Reciprocal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 235–244.Google Scholar
  114. Yousef, D. A. (2002). Job satisfaction as a mediator of the relationship between role stressors and organizational commitment: A study from an Arabic cultural perspective. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(4), 250–266.Google Scholar
  115. Zhao, X. S., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. M. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(2), 197–206.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Business AdministrationKing Saud UniversityRiyadhKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.Port Said University Faculty of CommercePort SaidEgypt

Personalised recommendations