Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 273–282 | Cite as

Work Ethic and Work Outcomes in an Expanded Criterion Domain

Original Paper

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between dimensions of work ethic and dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB).

Design/Methodology/Approach

Data were collected from employed individuals in MBA and undergraduate management courses and their work supervisors (N = 233). Participants represented diverse occupations with respect to job levels and industries. Participants completed the work ethic inventory, and participants’ managers completed ratings of OCB and CWB.

Findings

The work ethic dimension of centrality of work was positively related to both dimensions of OCB (i.e., OCB-I and OCB-O), and the work ethic dimension of morality/ethics was negatively related to one of the dimensions of CWB (i.e., CWB-I).

Implications

Modern perspectives on job performance recognize the multidimensional nature of the domain (i.e., the expanded criterion domain). In addition, noncognitive predictors such as work ethic have value as individual differences that are associated with performance outcomes. The assessment of such constructs can help inform selection and placement activities where a focus on OCB and CWB is important to managers.

Originality/Value

This study provides additional evidence on the relationship between work ethic and performance outcomes. Previous research has provided limited information on the relationship between dimensions of work ethic and dimensions of OCB, and no information existed on the relationship between work ethic dimensions and CWB.

Keywords

Work ethic Contextual performance Organizational citizenship behavior Counterproductive work behavior 

References

  1. Armstrong, G., & Griffin, M. (2004). Does the job matter? Comparing correlates of stress among treatment and correctional staff in prisons. Journal of Criminal Justice, 32, 577–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between affect and employee “citizenship”. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 587–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett, R. J., & Robinson, S. L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 349–360.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berry, C. M., Sackett, P. R., & Wiemann, S. (2007). A review of recent developments in integrity test research. Personnel Psychology, 60, 271–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blakely, G. L., Srivastava, A., & Moorman, R. H. (2005). The effects of nationality work role centrality, and work locus of control on role definitions of OCB. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12(1), 103–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blood, M. R. (1969). Work values and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 53, 456–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bobko, P., Roth, P. L., & Potosky, D. (1999). Derivation and implications of a meta-analytic matrix incorporating cognitive ability, alternative predictors, and job performance. Personnel Psychology, 52, 561–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bolino, M. C., Hsiung, H. H., Harvey, J., & LePine, J. A. (2015). “Well, I’m tired of tryin’!” Organizational citizenship behavior and citizenship fatigue. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100, 56–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. In N. Schmitt & W. C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  10. Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1997). Task performance and contextual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research. Human Performance, 10, 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brett, J. M., & Stroh, L. K. (2003). Working 61 plus hours a week: Why do managers do it? Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 67–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brockner, J., Grover, S. L., & Blonder, M. D. (1988). Predictors of survivors’ job involvement following layoffs: A field study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burke, R. J., & Ng, E. (2006). The changing nature of work and organizations: Implications for human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 16(2), 86–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Chiaburu, D. S., & Byrne, Z. S. (2009). Predicting OCB role definitions: Exchanges with the organization and psychological attachment. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24, 201–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooper, C. L. (1999). Can we live with the changing nature of work? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 14(7/8), 569–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dalal, R. S. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1241–1255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Diefendorff, J. M., Brown, D. J., Kamin, A. M., & Lord, R. G. (2002). Examining the roles of job involvement and work centrality in predicting organizational citizenship behaviors and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(1), 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunlop, D. D., & Lee, K. (2004). Workplace deviance, organizational citizenship behavior, and business unit performance: The bad apples do spoil the bunch. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 67–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Edwards, J. R. (2001). Multidimensional constructs in organizational behavior research: An integrative analytical framework. Organizational Research Methods, 4(2), 144–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feldman, D. C. (2002). Managers’ propensity to work longer hours: A multilevel analysis. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 339–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferris, D. L., Johnson, R. E., Rosen, C. C., Djurdjevic, E., Chang, C. H., & Tan, J. A. (2013). When is success not satisfying? Integrating regulatory focus and approach/avoidance motivation theories to explain the relation between core self-evaluation and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98, 342–353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Flynn, G. (1994). Attitude more valued than ability. Personnel Journal, 73, 16.Google Scholar
  24. Fox, S., & Spector, P. E. (2005). Counterproductive work behavior. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Furnham, A. (1990). The protestant work ethic. London, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Furnham, A., & Quilley, R. (1989). The protestant work ethic and the prisoner’s dilemma game. British Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gorman, C. A., & Meriac, J. P. (2016). Examining the work ethic of correctional officers using a short form of the multidimensional work ethic profile. The Prison Journal, 96, 258–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gough, H. G. (1985). A work orientation scale for the California psychological inventory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 505–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Greenberg, J. (1977). The Protestant work ethic and reactions to negative performance evaluations on a laboratory task. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 682–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gruys, M., & Sackett, P. (2003). Investigating the dimensionality of counterproductive work behavior. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 11(1), 30–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hanson, M. A., & Borman, W. C. (2006). Citizenship performance: An integrative review and motivational analysis. In W. Bennett, C. E. Lance, & D. J. Woehr (Eds.), Performance measurement: Current perspectives and future challenges (pp. 141–173). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  32. Hirschfeld, R. R., & Feild, H. S. (2000). Work centrality and work alienation: Distinct aspects of a general commitment to work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 789–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hitt, M. A., Keats, B. W., & DeMarie, S. M. (1998). Navigating in the new competitive landscape: Building strategic flexibility and competitive advantage in the 21st century. The Academy of Management Executive, 12(4), 22–42.Google Scholar
  34. Hoffman, B. J., Blair, C. A., Meriac, J. P., & Woehr, D. J. (2007). Expanding the criterion domain? A quantitative review of the OCB literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 555–566.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hough, L. M. (1998). Personality at work: Issues and evidence. In M. D. Hakel (Ed.), Beyond multiple choice: Evaluating alternatives to traditional testing for selection. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  36. Hough, L. M., Oswald, F. L., & Ployhart, R. E. (2001). Determinants, detection, and amelioration of adverse impact in personnel selection procedures: Issues, evidence, and lessons learned. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9, 152–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Howard, A. E. (1995). The changing nature of work. Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  38. Ilgen, D. R., & Pulakos, E. D. (1999). The changing nature of performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development. Frontiers of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.Google Scholar
  39. Johnson, J. W. (2000). A heuristic method for estimating the relative weight of predictor variables in multiple regression. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 35, 1–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Katz, D. (1964). The motivation bias of organizational behavior. Behavioral Science, 9, 131–146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaufman, J. C., & Agars, M. D. (2009). Being creative with the predictors and criteria for success. American Psychologist, 64, 280–281.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Khaleque, A. (1992). Work values, attitudes, and performance of industrial workers in Bangladesh. Social Indicators Research, 27, 187–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  44. Lambert, E. G., & Hogan, N. L. (2009). A test of the importation and work environment models: The effects of work ethic, importance of money, and management views on the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of correctional staff. Journal of Crime and Justice, 32, 61–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. LeBreton, J. M., & Tonidandel, S. (2008). Multivariate relative importance: Extending relative weight analysis to multivariate criterion space. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 329–345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Mael, F., & Jex, S. (2015). Workplace boredom an integrative model of traditional and contemporary approaches. Group and Organization Management, 40(2), 131–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Major, V. S., Klein, K. J., & Ehrhart, M. G. (2002). Work time, work interference with family, and psychological distress. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 427–436.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Meriac, J. P. (2012). Work ethic and academic performance: Predicting citizenship and counterproductive behavior. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 549–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meriac, J. P. (2014). Examining relationships among work ethic, academic motivation, and performance. Educational Psychology, 1–14, ahead-of-print.Google Scholar
  50. Meriac, J. P., Poling, T. L., & Woehr, D. J. (2009). Are there gender differences in work ethic? An examination of the measurement equivalence of the multidimensional work ethic profile. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 209–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Meriac, J. P., Slifka, J. S., & LaBat, L. R. (2015a). Work ethic and grit: An examination of empirical redundancy. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 401–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Meriac, J. P., Thomas, A. L. E., & Milunski, M. (2015b). Work ethic as a predictor of task persistence and intensity. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 249–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Meriac, J. P., Woehr, D. J., & Banister, C. (2010). Generational differences in work ethic: An examination of measurement equivalence across three cohorts. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25, 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Meriac, J. P., Woehr, D. J., Gorman, C. A., & Thomas, A. L. E. (2013). Development and validation of a short form for the multidimensional work ethic profile (MWEP). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82, 155–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Merrens, M. R., & Garrett, J. B. (1975). The protestant ethic scale as a predictor of repetitive work performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 125–127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Miller, M. J., Woehr, D. J., & Hudspeth, N. (2002). The meaning and measurement of work ethic: Construction and initial validation of a multidimensional inventory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60, 451–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Morrison, E. W. (1994). Role definitions and organizational citizenship behavior: The importance of the employee’s perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 1543–1567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Motowidlo, S. J., & van Scotter, J. R. (1994). Evidence that task performance should be distinguished from contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 475–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Murphy, K. R., & Shiarella, A. H. (1997). Implications of the multidimensional nature of job performance for the validity of selection tests: Multivariate frameworks for studying test validity. Personnel Psychology, 50(4), 823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Neubert, J. C., Mainert, J., Kretzschmar, A., & Greiff, S. (2015). The assessment of 21st century skills in industrial and organizational psychology: Complex and collaborative problem solving. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1–31.Google Scholar
  62. O’Brien, K. O., & Allen, T. D. (2008). The relative importance of correlates of organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior using multiple sources of data. Human Performance, 21, 62–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ones, D. S., Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F. L. (1993). Comprehensive meta-analysis of integrity test validities: findings and implications for personnel selection and theories of job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology (Monograph), 78, 679–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  65. Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s construct clean-up time. Human performance, 10(2), 85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  67. Parkhurst, J. T., Fleisher, M. S., Skinner, C. H., Woehr, D. J., & Hawthorne-Embree, M. L. (2011). Assignment choice, effort, and completion: Does work ethic predict those who choose higher-effort assignments? Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 575–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Paullay, I. M., Alliger, G. M., & Stone-Romero, E. F. (1994). Construct validation of two instruments designed to measure job involvement and work centrality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bacharach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26, 513–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 122–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Pulakos, E. D., Arad, S., Donovan, M. A., & Plamondon, K. E. (2000). Adaptability in the workplace: development of a taxonomy of adaptive performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(4), 612.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Pulakos, E. D., Schmitt, N., Dorsey, D. W., Arad, S., Borman, W. C., & Hedge, J. W. (2002). Predicting adaptive performance: Further tests of a model of adaptability. Human Performance, 15(4), 299–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Riggio, R. E., & Saggi, K. (2015). Incorporating “soft skills” into the collaborative problem-solving equation. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 8, 281–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rotundo, M., & Sackett, P. R. (2002). The relative importance of task, citizenship, and counterproductive performance to global ratings of job performance: A policy-capturing approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 66–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Ryan, J. J. (2002). Work values and organizational citizenship behaviors: Values that work for employees and organizations. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17, 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sackett, P. R. (2002). The structure of counterproductive work behaviors: Dimensionality and relationships with facets of job performance [Special issue]. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 5–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sackett, P. R., Schmitt, N., Ellingson, J. E., & Kabin, M. B. (2001). High-stakes testing in employment, credentialing, and higher education: Prospects in a post-affirmative action world. American Psychologist, 56, 302–318.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Saks, A. M., Mudrack, P. E., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). The relationship between the work ethic, job attitudes, intentions to quit, and turnover for temporary service employees. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 13, 226–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (1998). The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 262–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schuler, R. S., & Jackson, S. E. (1987). Linking competitive strategies with human resource management practices. The Academy of Management Executive, 1987–1989, 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 653–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Spector, P. E. (2011). The relationship of personality to counterproductive work behavior (CWB): An integration of perspectives. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 342–352.Google Scholar
  84. Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2005). Concluding thoughts: Where do we go from here? In S. Fox & P. E. Spector (Eds.), Counterproductive work behavior: Investigations of actors and targets (pp. 297–305). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2010). Counter productive work behavior and organisational citizenship behavior: Are they opposite forms of active behavior? Applied Psychology, 59, 21–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Spector, P. E., Fox, S., Penney, L. M., Bruursema, K., Goh, A., & Kessler, S. (2006). The dimensionality of counterproductivity: Are all counterproductive behaviors created equal? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 446–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tonidandel, S., & LeBreton, J. M. (2011). Relative importance analysis: A useful supplement to regression analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (2000). Perspectives on models of job performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 8, 216–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Weber, M. (1958). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism (T. Parsons, Trans.). New York, NY: Scribners [Original work published 1904–1905].Google Scholar
  90. Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17, 601–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychological SciencesUniversity of Missouri - St. LouisSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Management and MarketingEast Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA

Personalised recommendations