Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 1–16

Nonresponse in Employee Attitude Surveys: A Group-Level Analysis

  • Thorsten Fauth
  • Kate Hattrup
  • Karsten Mueller
  • Brandon Roberts
Article

Abstract

Purpose

Given the common practice of using employee attitude surveys as a group-level intervention, this study used a group-level approach to examine the relationship between group satisfaction and group nonresponse.

Design/Methodology/Approach

Samples from four large organizations enabled job satisfaction scores to be aggregated to the work group level and correlated with group-level response rates. Additional regression analysis was conducted to control for a number of confounding variables at the group level.

Findings

Aggregate job satisfaction showed significant associations with group-level response rates across each of the samples examined. Work groups with higher aggregate job satisfaction had significantly higher response rates. Regression analyses showed that, in addition to job satisfaction, work group size, heterogeneity in tenure, and heterogeneity in gender composition all had significant effects on response rates.

Implications

Social influence processes may operate at the group level to increase homogeneity of job-relevant attitudes and similarity in survey response behavior. Future research should be designed to investigate the effects of group-level variables on nonresponse.

Originality/Value

The current study adds to the literature by demonstrating that work group variables may play an important role in explaining nonresponse in employee attitude surveys. Because the processes underlying survey response are likely to be different at different levels of analysis, the investigation of nonresponse as a group-level phenomenon creates new opportunities for research and practice.

Keywords

Survey nonresponse Organizational survey Group level Job satisfaction Organizational attitudes Survey feedback 

References

  1. Anderson, N. R., & West, M. A. (1998). Measuring climate for work group innovation: Development and validation of the team climate inventory. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 235–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anseel, F., Lievens, F., Schollaert, E., & Choragwicka, B. (2010). Response rates in organizational science, 1995–2008: A meta-analytic review and guidelines for survey researchers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25, 335–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armstrong, J. S., & Lusk, E. J. (1987). Return postage in mail surveys: A meta-analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 51, 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 16, 396–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barr, C., Spitzmueller, C., & Stuebing, K. (2008). Too stressed out to participate? Examining the relation between stressors and survey response behavior. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13, 232–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartko, J. J. (1976). On various intraclass correlation reliability coefficients. Psychological Bulletin, 83, 762–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Björklund, C., Grahn, A., Jensen, I., & Bergstrom, G. (2007). Does survey feedback enhance the psychosocial work environment and decrease sick leave? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16, 76–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blau, P. M. (1977). Inequality and heterogeneity: A primitive theory of social structure. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bliese, P. D. (1998). Group size, ICC values, and group-level correlations: A simulation. Organizational Research Methods, 1, 355–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 349–381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  11. Bliese, P. D., & Halverson, R. R. (1996). Individual and nomothetic models of job stress: An examination of work hours, cohesion, and well-being. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1171–1189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bliese, P. D., & Halverson, R. R. (1998). Group size and measures of group-level properties: An examination of eta-squared and ICC values. Journal of Management, 24, 157–172.Google Scholar
  13. Born, D. H., & Mathieu, J. E. (1996). Differential effects of survey-guided feedback. Group & Organization Management, 21, 388–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bosnjak, M., & Batinic, B. (2002). Understanding the willingness to participate in online surveys—The case of e-mail questionnaires. In B. Batinic, U. Reips, & M. Bosnjak (Eds.), Online social sciences (pp. 81–92). Seattle, WA: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  15. Bosnjak, M., Tuten, T. L., & Wittmann, W. W. (2005). Unit (non)response in web-based access panel surveys: An extended planned-behavior approach. Psychology and Marketing, 22, 489–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burke, W. W. (2006). Organizational survey as leverage for organization development and change. In A. I. Kraut (Ed.), Organizational surveys: Tools for assessment and change (pp. 131–149). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  17. Burke, W. W., Coruzzi, C. A., & Church, A. H. (1996). The organizational survey as an intervention for change. In A. I. Kraut (Ed.), Organizational surveys: Tools for assessment and change (pp. 41–66). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  18. Burke, M. J., Finkelstein, L. M., & Dusig, M. S. (1999). On average deviation indices for estimating interrater agreement. Organizational Research Methods, 2, 49–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chan, D. (1998). Functional relations among constructs in the same content domain at different levels of analysis: A typology of composition models. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 234–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chiaburu, D. S., & Harrison, D. A. (2008). Do peers make the place? Conceptual synthesis and meta-analysis of coworker effects on perceptions, attitudes, OCBs, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1082–1103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Church, A. H. (1993). Estimating the effect of incentives on mail survey response rates: A meta-analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 57, 62–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Church, A. H., & Oliver, D. H. (2006). The importance of taking action, not just sharing survey feedback. In A. I. Kraut (Ed.), Getting action from organizational surveys: New concepts, technologies, and applications (pp. 33–52). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  24. Church, A. H., & Waclawski, J. (1998). Designing and using organizational surveys. Aldershot: Gower.Google Scholar
  25. Cialdini, R. B., & Trost, M. R. (1998). Social influence: Social norms, conformity, and compliance. In D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (4th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 151–192). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  26. Clausen, J. A., & Ford, R. N. (1947). Controlling bias in mail questionnaires. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 42, 497–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Conway, J. M., & Lance, C. E. (2010). What reviewers should expect from authors regarding common method bias in organizational research. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(3), 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cook, C., Heath, F., & Thompson, R. L. (2000). A meta-analysis of response rates in web- or internet based surveys. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 821–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cropanzano, R., & Mitchel, S. M. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31, 874–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dillman, D. A. (2000). Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Edwards, J. E., Thomas, M. D., Rosenfeld, O., & Booth-Kewley, S. (1997). How to conduct organizational surveys. A step-by-step guide. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  33. Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 57, 61–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ehrhart, M. G., & Naumann, S. E. (2004). Organizational citizenship behavior in work groups: A group norms approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(6), 960–974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Falletta, S. V., & Combs, W. (2002). Surveys as a tool for organization development and change. In J. Waclawski & A. H. Church (Eds.), Organization development: A data-driven approach to organizational change (pp. 78–102). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  36. Festinger, L., & Thibaut, J. (1951). Interpersonal communication in small groups. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 46, 92–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Folkman, J. (1998). Employee surveys that make a difference. Provo, UT: Executive Excellence.Google Scholar
  38. Fox, R. J., Crask, M. R., & Kim, J. (1988). Mail survey response rate: A meta-analysis of selected techniques for inducing response. Public Opinion Quarterly, 52, 467–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. French, W., & Bell, C. (1999). Organization development: Behavioural science interventions for organization improvement. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  40. Glick, W. H. (1985). Conceptualizing and measuring organizational and psychological climate: Pitfalls in multilevel research. Academy of Management Review, 10, 601–616.Google Scholar
  41. Goodman, J., & Blum, T. (1996). Assessing the non-random sampling effects of subject attrition in longitudinal research. Journal of Management, 22, 627–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Green, K. E. (1996). Sociodemographic factors and mail survey response. Psychology and Marketing, 13, 171–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harter, J. K., & Schmidt, F. L. (2006). Connecting employee satisfaction to business unit performance. In A. I. Kraut (Ed.), Getting action from organizational surveys: New concepts, technologies, and applications (pp. 102–130). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  44. Hartman, R. L., & Johnson, J. D. (1989). Social contagion and multiplexity communication networks as predictors of commitment and role ambiguity. Human Communication Research, 15, 523–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hattrup, K., Mueller, K., & Joens, I. (2007). The effects of nations and organizations on work value importance: A cross-cultural investigation. Applied psychology: An International Review, 56(3), 479–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Heberlein, T. A., & Baumgartner, R. (1978). Factors affecting response rates to mailed questionnaires: A quantitative analysis of the published literature. American Sociological Review, 43, 447–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Helgeson, J. G., Voss, K. E., & Terpening, W. D. (2002). Determinants of mail-survey response: Survey design factors and respondent factors. Psychology and Marketing, 19, 303–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hinrichs, J. R. (1996). Feedback, action planning, and follow-through. In A. I. Kraut (Ed.), Organizational surveys: Tools for assessment and change (pp. 255–278). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  49. Hogg, M. A., & Abrams, D. (1988). Social identifications: A social psychology of intergroup relations and group processes. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Hogg, M. A., & Grieve, P. (1999). Social identity theory and the crisis of confidence in social psychology: A commentary, and some research on uncertainty reduction. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 79–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hutchison, J., Tollefson, N., & Wigington, H. (1987). Response bias in college freshmen’s responses to mail surveys. Research in Higher Education, 26, 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jackson, S. E. (1992). Team composition in organizational settings: Issues in managing an increasingly diverse work force. In S. Worchel, W. Wood, & J. A. Simpson (Eds.), Group process and productivity (pp. 138–173). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  53. Jackson, S., Brett, J., Sessa, V., Cooper, D., Julin, J., & Peyronnin, K. (1991). Some differences make a difference: Individual dissimilarity and group heterogeneity as correlates of recruitment, promotions, and turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 675–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. James, L. R. (1982). Aggregation bias in estimates of perceptual agreement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 219–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. James, J. M., & Bolstein, R. (1990). The effect of material incentives and follow-up mailings on the response rate and response quality in mail surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 54, 346–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. James, L. R., Demaree, R. G., & Wolf, G. (1984). Estimating within-group interrater reliability with and without response bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Johnson, L. C., Beaton, R., Murphy, S., & Pike, K. (2000). Sampling bias and other methodological threats to the validity of health survey research. International Journal of Stress Management, 7, 247–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kantor, J. (1991). The effects of computer administration and identification on the Job Descriptive Index. Journal of Business and Psychology, 75, 309–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kirkman, B. L., & Rosen, B. (1999). Beyond self-management: Antecedents and consequences of team empowerment. Academy of Management Journal, 42, 58–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Klein, K. J., Dansereau, F., & Hall, R. I. (1994). Levels issues in theory development, data collection, and analysis. Academy of Management Review, 19, 195–229.Google Scholar
  61. Klein, K. J., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (2000). From micro to meso: Critical steps in conceptualizing and conducting multilevel research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 211–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Hattrup, K. (1992). A disagreement about within-group agreement: Disentangling issues of consistency versus consensus. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kraut, A. (2006). Getting action from organizational surveys: New concepts, technologies and applications. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  64. LeBreton, J. M., Burgess, J. R. D., Kaiser, R. B., Atchley, E. K., & James, L. R. (2003). The restriction of variance hypothesis and interrater reliability and agreement: Are ratings from multiple sources really dissimilar? Organizational Research Methods, 6, 80–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lord, F. M., & Novick, M. R. (1968). Statistical theories of mental test scores. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  66. Lubin, B., Levitt, E., & Zukerman, M. S. (1962). Some personality differences between respondents and nonrespondents to a survey questionnaire. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 26, 192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mason, C. M., & Griffin, M. A. (2002). Group task satisfaction: Applying the construct of job satisfaction to groups. Small Group Research, 33, 271–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mason, C. M., & Griffin, M. A. (2003a). Identifying group task satisfaction at work. Small Group Research, 34, 413–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mason, C. M., & Griffin, M. A. (2003b). Group absenteeism and positive affective tone: A longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 667–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mayer, C., & Pratt, R. (1966). A note on nonresponse in a mail survey. Public Opinion Quarterly, 30, 646–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. McConnell, J. H. (2003). How to design, implement, and interpret an employee survey. New York: Amacom.Google Scholar
  72. McDaniel, S., Madden, C. S., & Verille, P. (1987). Do topic differences affect survey nonresponse? Journal of the Market Research Society, 29, 55–67.Google Scholar
  73. Moliner, C., Martinez-Tur, V., Peiro, J. M., Ramos, J., & Cropanzano, R. (2005). Relationships between organizational justice and burnout at the work-unit level. International Journal of Stress Management, 12, 99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moore, S. (1999). Understanding and managing diversity among groups at work: Key issues for organizational training and development. Journal of. European Industrial Training, 23(4/5), 208–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mueller, K., Liebig, C., & Hattrup, K. (2007). Computerizing organizational attitudes surveys: An investigation of the measurement equivalence of a multifaceted job satisfaction measure. Journal of Educational and Psychological Measurement, 67, 658–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mueller, K., Hattrup, K., & Straatmann, T. (2011). Globally surveying in English: Investigation of the measurement equivalence of a job satisfaction measure across bilingual and native English speakers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84, 618–624.Google Scholar
  77. Nadler, D. A. (1977). Feedback and organization development: Using data-based methods in organization development. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  78. Nesterkin, D. A., & Ganster, D. C. (2012). The effects of nonresponse rates on group-level correlations. Journal of Management. doi:10.1177/0149206311433853.
  79. Newman, J. E. (1975). Understanding the organizational structure—Job attitude relationship through perceptions of the work environment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 14, 371–397.Google Scholar
  80. Newman, D. A., & Sin, H.-P. (2009). How do missing data bias estimates of within-group agreement? Sensitivity of SD WG, CVWG, rWG(J), rWG(J) * and ICC to systematic nonresponse. Organizational Research Methods, 12, 113–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  82. Ostroff, C. (1992). The relationship between satisfaction, attitudes, and performance: An organizational level analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 963–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 122–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pritchard, R. D., & Karasick, B. W. (1973). The effects of organizational climate on managerial job performance and job satisfaction. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 9, 126–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rogelberg, S. G. (Ed.). (2002). Handbook of research methods in industrial and organizational psychology. London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  87. Rogelberg, S. G. (2006). Understanding nonresponse and facilitating response to organizational surveys. In A. I. Kraut (Ed.), Getting action from organizational surveys: New concepts, technologies, and applications (pp. 312–325). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  88. Rogelberg, S. G., Conway, J. M., Sederburg, M. E., Spitzmueller, C., Aziz, S., & Knight, W. E. (2003). Profiling active and passive-non-respondents to an organizational survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 1104–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rogelberg, S. G., Fisher, G. G., Maynard, D. C., Hakel, M. D., & Horvath, M. (2001). Attitudes toward surveys: Development of a measure and its relationship to respondent behavior. Organizational Research Methods, 4, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rogelberg, S. G., & Luong, A. (1998). Nonresponse to mailed surveys: A review and guide. Current Direction in Psychological Science, 7, 60–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rogelberg, S. G., Luong, A., Sederburg, M. E., & Cristol, D. S. (2000). Employee attitude surveys: Examining the attitudes of noncompliant employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 284–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rogelberg, S. G., Spitzmueller, C., Little, I. S., & Reeve, C. L. (2006). Understanding response behavior to an online special topics organizational satisfaction survey. Personnel Psychology, 59, 903–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rogelberg, S. G., & Stanton, J. M. (2007). Understanding and dealing with organizational survey nonresponse. Organizational Research Methods, 10, 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rousseau, D. M. (1978). Characteristics of departments, positions, and individuals: Contexts for attitudes and behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 521–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ryan, A. M., Schmit, M. J., & Johnson, R. (1996). Attitudes and effectiveness: Examining relations at an organizational level. Personnel Psychology, 49, 853–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 224–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sax, L., Gilmartin, S., & Bryant, A. (2002). Assessing response rates and nonresponse bias in web and paper surveys. Research in Higher Education, 44, 409–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schiemann, W., & Morgan, B. (2006). Strategic surveys: Linking people to business strategy. In A. Kraut (Ed.), Getting action from organizational surveys: New concepts, technologies, and applications (pp. 76–100). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  99. Schneider, B., Hanges, P. J., Smith, D. B., & Salvaggio, A. N. (2003). Which comes first: Employee attitudes or organizational financial and market performance? Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 836–851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schyns, B., Paul, T., Mohr, G., & Blank, H. (2005). Comparing antecedents and consequences of leader-member-exchange in a German working context to findings in the US. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 14(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shrout, P. E., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 420–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Smith, P. B. (2003). Meeting the challenge of cultural difference. In D. Tjosvold & K. Leung (Eds.), Cross-cultural management: Foundation and future (pp. 59–73). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  103. Smith, P. C., Kendall, L. M., & Hulin, C. L. (1985). The job descriptive index (rev. ed.). Bowling Green, OH: Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University.Google Scholar
  104. Song, L. J., Tsui, A. S., & Law, K. S. (2009). Unpacking employee responses to organizational exchange mechanisms: The role of social and economic exchange perceptions. Journal of Management, 35, 56–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sosdian, C. P., & Sharp, L. M. (1980). Nonresponse in mail surveys: Access failure or respondent resistance. Public Opinion Quarterly, 44, 396–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Spitzmueller, C., Barr, C., Glenn, D., Rogelberg, S., & Daniel, P. (2006). “If you treat me right, I reciprocate”: Examining the role of exchange in organizational survey nonresponse. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 19–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Spitzmueller, C., & Glenn, D. M. (2006). Nonresponse in employee surveys—A review and directions for future work. In M. Braun (Ed.), Survey methodology (pp. 139–162). Mannheim: ZUMA Press.Google Scholar
  108. Spitzmueller, C., Glenn, D., Sutton, M. M., Barr, C. D., & Rogelberg, S. G. (2007). Are survey nonrespondents bad organizational citizens? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 15, 449–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Stinchcombe, A. L., Jones, C., & Sheatsley, P. (1981). Nonresponse bias for attitude questions. Public Opinion Quarterly, 45, 359–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  111. Taris, T. W., & Schreurs, P. J. (2007). How may nonresponse affect findings in organizational surveys? The tendency-to-the-positive-effect. International Journal of Stress Management, 14(3), 249–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Thompson, L. F., & Surface, E. A. (2007). Employee surveys administered online: Attitudes toward the medium, nonresponse, and data representativeness. Organizational Research Methods, 10, 241–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Turner, J. C. (1982). Towards a cognitive redefinition of the social group. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Social identity and intergroup relations (pp. 15–40). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  114. Vincent, C. (1964). Socioeconomic status and familial variables in mail questionnaire responses. American Journal of Sociology, 69, 647–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wallace, D. (1954). A case for-and-against mail questionnaires. Public Opinion Quarterly, 18, 40–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Whelan, T. J. (2008). Antecedents of anonymity perceptions in web-based surveys. Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  117. Williams, R. (2007). Achieving leadership results through employee surveys. Delta, BC, Canada: TWI Surveys.Google Scholar
  118. Wolf, T. R., Hattrup, K., & Mueller, K. (2011). A cross-national investigation of the measurement equivalence of computerized organizational attitude surveys: A two study design in multiple nations. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 21(3), 246–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yammarino, F. J., & Markham, S. E. (1992). On the application of within and between analysis: Are absence and affect really group-based phenomena? Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 168–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thorsten Fauth
    • 1
  • Kate Hattrup
    • 2
  • Karsten Mueller
    • 4
  • Brandon Roberts
    • 3
  1. 1.University of MannheimMannheimGermany
  2. 2.San Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Qualcomm Inc.San DiegoUSA
  4. 4.University of OsnabrueckOsnabrueckGermany

Personalised recommendations