Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 15–30 | Cite as

A Convergence/Divergence Perspective of Leadership Competencies Managers Believe are Most Important for Success in Organizations: A Cross-Cultural Multilevel Analysis of 40 Countries

  • William A. Gentry
  • Taylor E. Sparks



We investigated the convergence and divergence perspectives in organizations to determine whether certain leadership competencies are universally endorsed by managers across countries (supporting convergence) as being important for success in organizations, or if the importance of the leadership competencies were dependent upon certain cultural dimensions (supporting divergence).


Participants were 9,942 practicing managers in 40 countries. Because managers were nested within their respective countries and endorsement was a binary outcome variable, a special case of multilevel analysis known as a hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) was used.


Findings support cross-national convergence: Resourcefulness, Change Management, and Building and Mending Relationships were highly valued among managers across countries, and cultural values did not seem to influence this endorsement. Balancing Personal Life and Work was not as valued globally.


Researchers must investigate leadership competencies that are important to organizational success across countries. Due to globalization, it is vital that managers become aware of the values espoused within their organization as well as among their business partners and contemporaries. This may facilitate cross-national business interaction and leader effectiveness.


This study advances theory in its attempt to empirically examine whether leadership competencies needed to succeed in organizations are universally endorsed. Moreover, the sample of managers utilized was unique and extremely robust. The study offers methodological advances as well; it is one of the few examples of the appropriate use of a special case of multilevel data analysis that enables the use of a binary outcome measure.


Convergence of cultures Divergence of cultures Global leadership Hierarchical generalized linear modeling 


  1. Atwater, L., Wang, M., Smither, J. W., & Fleenor, J. W. (2009). Are cultural characteristics associated with the relationship between self and others’ ratings of leadership? Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 876–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, W., & Spicer, A. (2007). When does national identity matter? Convergence and divergence in international business ethics. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1462–1480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barkema, H. G., Baum, J. A. C., & Mannix, E. A. (2002). Management challenges in a new time. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 91–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnett, R. C., & Hyde, J. S. (2001). Women, men, work, and family: An expansionist theory. American Psychologist, 56, 781–796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron, A. (1999). Communicating at the speed of change. Strategic Communication Management, 3, 12–17.Google Scholar
  6. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  7. Berquist, W. (1993). The postmodern organization: Mastering the art of irreversible change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  8. Borman, W. C., & Brush, D. H. (1993). More progress toward a taxonomy of managerial performance requirements. Human Performance, 6, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouteiller, D., & Gilbert, P. (2005). Intersecting reflections on competency management in France and in North America. Relations Industrielles, 60(1), 3–28.Google Scholar
  10. Carr, C., & Pudelko, M. (2006). Convergence of management practices in strategy, finance and HRM between the USA, Japan and Germany. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 6, 75–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carty, H. M. (2003). Review of benchmarks [revised]. In B. S. Plake, J. Impara, & R. A. Spies (Eds.), The fifteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 123–124). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.Google Scholar
  12. Casper, W. J., Eby, L. T., Bordeaux, C., Lockwood, A., & Lambert, D. (2007). A review of the research methods in IO/OB work-family research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 28–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. CCL. (2004). Benchmarks facilitator’s manual. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.Google Scholar
  14. Charbonnier-Voirin, A., El Akremi, A., & Vandenberghe, C. (2010). A multilevel model of transformational leadership and adaptive performance and the moderating role of climate for innovation. Group & Organization Management, 35, 699–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chatman, J. A., & Jehn, K. A. (1994). Assessing the relationship between industry characteristics and organizational culture: How different can you be? Academy of Management Journal, 37, 522–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Copeman, G. (1971). The chief executive and business growth. London: Leviathan House.Google Scholar
  17. Corrigall, E. A., & Konrad, A. M. (2006). The relationship of job attribute preferences to employment, hours of paid work, and family responsibilities: An analysis comparing women and men. Sex Roles, 54, 95–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Costigan, R. D., Insinga, R. C., Berman, J. J., Ilter, S. S., Kranas, G., & Kureshov, V. A. (2006). The effect of employee trust of the supervisor on enterprising behavior: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21, 273–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cullen, J. B., Parboteeah, K. P., & Hoegl, M. (2004). Cross-national differences in managers’ willingness to justify ethically suspect behaviors: A test of institutional anomie theory. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 411–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Day, D. (2000). Leadership development: A review in context. The Leadership Quarterly, 11, 581–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dess, G. G., & Picken, J. C. (2000). Changing roles: Leadership in the 21st century. Organizational Dynamics, 28, 18–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dorfman, P. W., Hanges, P. J., & Brodbeck, F. C. (2004). Leadership and culture variation: The identification of culturally endorsed leadership profiles. In R. J. House, P. J. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. W. Dorfman, & V. Gupta (Eds.), Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies (pp. 669–719). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  23. Dorfman, P. W., Howell, J. P., Hibino, S., Lee, J. K., Tate, U., & Bautista, A. (1997). Leadership in Western and Asian countries: Commonalities and differences in effective leadership processes across cultures. The Leadership Quarterly, 8, 233–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Earley, P. C. (2006). Leading cultural research in the future: A matter of paradigms and taste. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 922–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eby, L. T., Casper, W. J., Lockwood, A., Bordeaux, C., & Brinley, A. (2005). Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 124–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eckert, R., Ekelund, B. Z., Gentry, W. A., & Dawson, J. F. (2010). “I don’t see me like you see me, but is that a problem?”: Cultural influences on rating discrepancy in 360-degree feedback instruments. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 19, 259–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Emrich, C. G., Denmark, F. L., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2004). Cross-cultural differences in gender egalitarianism: Implications for societies, organizations, and leaders. In R. J. House, P. J. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. W. Dorfman, & V. Gupta (Eds.), Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies (pp. 343–394). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  28. England, G. W., & Lee, R. (1974). The relationship between managerial values and managerial success in the United States, Japan, India, and Australia. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 411–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Evans, R., Jr. (1970). Evolution of the Japanese system of employer-employee relations, 1868–1945. The Business History Review, 44, 110–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fleenor, J. W., McCauley, C. D., & Brutus, S. (1996). Self-other rating agreement and leader effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 7, 487–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fu, P. P., Kennedy, J., Tat, J., Yukl, G., Bond, M. H., Pend, T., et al. (2004). The impact of societal cultural values and individual social beliefs on the perceived effectiveness of managerial influence strategies: A meso approach. Journal of International Business Studies, 35, 284–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Geletkanycz, M. A. (1997). The salience of ‘Culture’s Consequences’: The effects of cultural values on top executive commitment to the status quo. Strategic Management Journal, 18, 615–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gentry, W. A., Booysen, L., Hannum, K. H., & Weber, T. J. (2010). Leadership responses to a conflict of gender-based tension: A comparison of responses between men and women in the US and South Africa. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 10, 285–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gentry, W. A., Harris, L. S., Baker, B. A., & Leslie, J. B. (2008a). Managerial skills: What has changed since the late 1980s. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29, 167–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gentry, W. A., & Leslie, J. B. (2007). Competencies for leadership development: What’s hot and what’s not when assessing leadership—Implications for organization development. Organization Development Journal, 25(1), 37–46.Google Scholar
  36. Gentry, W. A., Weber, T. J., & Sadri, G. (2008b). Examining career-related mentoring and managerial performance across cultures: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 241–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Graves, L. M., Ohlott, P. J., & Ruderman, M. N. (2007). Commitment to family roles: Effects on managers’ attitudes and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 44–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2006). When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment. Academy of Management Review, 31, 72–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gupta, A. K., & Govindarajan, V. (2000). Managing global expansion: A conceptual framework. Business Horizons, 43, 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Haas, L. L., & Hwang, P. (2000). Programs and policies promoting women’s economic equality and men’s sharing of child care in Sweden. In L. L. Haas, P. Hwang, & G. Russell (Eds.), Organizational change and gender equity: International perspectives on fathers and mothers at the workplace (pp. 133–161). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Hoffman, B. J., Lance, C. E., Bynum, B. H., & Gentry, W. A. (2010). Rater source effects are alive and well after all. Personnel Psychology, 63, 119–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hofmann, D. A. (1997). An overview of the logic and rationale of hierarchical linear models. Journal of Management, 23, 723–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hofmann, D. A., Moregeson, F. P., & Gerras, S. J. (2003). Climate as a moderator of the relationship between leader–member exchange and content specific citizenship: Safety climate as an exemplar. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 170–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hofstede, G. H. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  45. Hofstede, G. H. (1984). Culture’s consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  46. Hofstede, G. H. (1991). Cultures and organizations. London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  47. Hofstede, G. H. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  48. Hofstede, G. H. (2006). What did GLOBE really measure? Researchers’ minds versus respondents’ minds. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 882–896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hofstede, G. H., & Bond, M. H. (1988). The Confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics, 16, 5–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. House, R. J., & Aditya, R. N. (1997). The social scientific study of leadership: Quo vadis? Journal of Management, 23, 409–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  52. House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Ruiz-Quintanilla, S. A., Dorfman, P. W., Javidan, M., Dickson, M., et al. (1999). Cultural influences on leadership and organizations: The GLOBE project. In W. Mobley, J. Gessner, & V. Arnold (Eds.), Advances in global leadership (Vol. 1, pp. 171–234). Stanford, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  53. Inglehart, R., Basáñez, M., & Menéndez Moreno, A. (1998). Human values and beliefs: A cross-cultural sourcebook: Political, religious, sexual, and economic norms in 43 societies; Findings from the 1990–1993 World Values Survey. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  54. Jackson, S., Farndale, E., & Kakabadse, A. (2003). Executive development: Meeting the needs of top teams and boards. Journal of Management Development, 22, 185–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Javidan, M., & House, R. J. (2002). Leadership and cultures around the world: Findings from GLOBE: An introduction to the special issue. Journal of World Business, 37, 1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Javidan, M., House, R. J., Dorfman, P. W., Hanges, P. J., & De Luquet, M. S. (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring cultures and their consequences: A comparative review of GLOBE’s and Hofstede’s approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 897–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Katz, R. L. (1974). Skills of an effective administrator. Harvard Business Review, 52, 90–102.Google Scholar
  58. Keppel, G., & Zedeck, S. (1989). Data analysis for research designs: Analysis of variance and multiple regression/correlation approaches. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  59. Kostova, T. (1997). Country institutional profile: Concept and measurement. Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings, 180–189.Google Scholar
  60. Kotter, J. P. (1995). Leading change: Why transformational efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 73, 59–67.Google Scholar
  61. Kraut, A. I., Pedigo, P. R., McKenna, D. D., & Dunnette, M. D. (1989). The role of the manager: What’s really important in different management jobs. Academy of Management Executive, 3(4), 286–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lance, C. E., Hoffman, B. J., Gentry, W. A., & Baranik, L. E. (2008). Rater source factors represent important subcomponents of the criterion construct space, not rater bias. Human Resource Management Review, 18, 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lincoln, J. R., Jon, O., & Hanada, M. (1978). Cultural effects on organizational structure: The case of Japanese firms in the United States. American Sociological Review, 43, 829–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lindsey, E. H., Homes, V., & McCall, M. W., Jr. (1987). Key events in executives’ lives. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.Google Scholar
  65. Lombardo, M. M., & McCauley, C. D. (1994). Benchmarks: A manual and trainer’s guide. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.Google Scholar
  66. Lombardo, M. M., McCauley, C. D., McDonald-Mann, D., & Leslie, J. B. (1999). Benchmarks developmental reference points. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.Google Scholar
  67. Lord, R. G., & Maher, K. J. (1991). Leadership and information processing. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  68. Luthans, F. (1988). Successful versus effective real managers. Academy of Management Executive, 2, 127–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Luthans, F., Welsh, D. H., & Taylor, L. A. (1988). A descriptive model of managerial effectiveness. Group & Organization Studies, 13, 148–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lyness, K. S., & Judiesch, M. K. (2008). Can a manager have a life and a career? International and multisource perspectives on work-life balance and career advancement potential. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 789–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lyness, K. S., & Kropf, M. B. (2005). The relationships of national gender equality and organizational support with work–family balance: A study of European managers. Human Relations, 58, 33–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lyness, K. S., & Kropf, M. B. (2007). Cultural values and potential nonresponse bias: A multilevel examination of cross-national differences in mail survey response rates. Organizational Research Methods, 10, 210–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maas, C. J. M., & Hox, J. J. (2004). Robustness issues in multilevel regression analysis. Statistica Neerlandica, 58, 127–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Maas, C. J. M., & Hox, J. J. (2005). Sufficient sample sizes for multilevel modeling. Methodology, 1(3), 86–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Martin, K. D., Cullen, J. B., Johnson, J. L., & Parboteeah, K. P. (2007). Deciding to bribe: A cross-level analysis of firm and home country influences on bribery activity. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1401–1422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McCauley, C. D., & Lombardo, M. M. (1990). Benchmarks: An instrument for diagnosing managerial strengths and weaknesses. In K. E. Clark & M. B. Clark (Eds.), Measures of leadership (pp. 535–545). West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America.Google Scholar
  77. McCauley, C. D., Lombardo, M. M., & Usher, C. J. (1989). Diagnosing management development needs: An instrument based on how managers develop. Journal of Management, 15, 389–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Merritt, A. C. (2000). Culture in the cockpit: Do Hofstede’s dimensions replicate? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31, 283–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mintzberg, H. (1973). The nature of managerial work. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  80. Morrison, A. M., White, R. P., & Van Velsor, E. (1987). Breaking the glass ceiling: Can women reach the top of America’s largest corporations?. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  81. Muethel, M., Hoegl, M., & Parboteeah, K. P. (2011). National corporate work context and employees’ prosocial values. Journal of International Business Studies, 42, 183–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Munusamy, V., Valdez, M., Lo, K., Budde, A., Suarez, C., & Doktor, R. (2009). Sustained rapid economic growth and cultural convergence: Comparative longitudinal analysis of evidence from GLOBE & Hofstede. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 3(2), 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Offermann, L., & Hellmann, P. (1997). Culture’s consequences for leadership behavior. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28, 342–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Parboteeah, K. P., Addae, H., & Cullen, J. B. (2005a). Absences and national culture: An empirical test. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 13, 343–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Parboteeah, K. P., Bronson, J. W., & Cullen, J. B. (2005b). Does national culture affect willingness to justify ethically suspect behaviors? A focus on the GLOBE national culture scheme. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 5, 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Parboteeah, K. P., & Cullen, J. B. (2003). Social institutions and work centrality: Explorations beyond national culture. Organization Science, 14, 137–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Payne, A. (2006). Corporate governance in the USA and Europe: They are closer than you might think. Corporate Governance, 6(1), 69–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Porter, M. E. (1986). Changing patterns of international competition. California Management Review, 28, 9–40.Google Scholar
  89. Ralston, D. A., Holt, D. H., Terpstra, R. H., & Yu, K.-C. (1997). The impact of national culture and economic ideology on managerial work values: A study of the United States, Russia, Japan, and China. Journal of International Business Studies, 28, 177–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  91. Reise, S. P., & Duan, N. (2003). Design issues in multilevel studies. In S. P. Reise & N. Duan (Eds.), Multilevel modeling: Methodological advances, issues, and applications (pp. 285–298). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  92. Resick, C. J., Hanges, P. J., Dickson, M. W., & Mitchelson, J. K. (2006). A cross-cultural examination of the endorsement of ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 63, 345–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ricks, D. A., Toyne, B., & Martinez, Z. (1990). Recent developments in international management research. Journal of Management, 16, 219–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rousseau, D. M., & Fried, Y. (2001). Location, location, location: Contextualizing organizational research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ruderman, M. N., Ohlott, P. J., Panzer, K., & King, S. N. (2002). Benefits of multiple roles for managerial women. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 369–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sadri, G., Weber, T. J., & Gentry, W. A. (in press). Empathic emotion and leadership performance: An empirical analysis across 38 countries. The Leadership Quarterly.Google Scholar
  97. Sagie, A., & Aycan, Z. (2003). A cross-cultural analysis of participative decision-making in organizations. Human Relations, 56, 453–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Scandura, T. A., & Williams, E. A. (2000). Research methodology in management: Current practices, trends, and implications for future research. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 1248–1264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Scherbaum, C. A., & Ferreter, J. M. (2009). Estimating statistical power and required sample sizes for organizational research using multilevel modeling. Organizational Research Methods, 12, 347–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theory and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  101. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism: New cultural dimensions of values. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S. C. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications (Vol. 18, pp. 85–119). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  102. Sieber, S. D. (1974). Toward a theory of role accumulation. American Sociological Review, 39, 467–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith, P. B. (1997). Cross-cultural leadership: A path to the goal? In P. C. Earley & M. Erez (Eds.), New perspectives on international industrial/organizational psychology (pp. 626–639). San Francisco: Lexington Press.Google Scholar
  104. Smith, P. B. (2006). When elephants fight, the grass gets trampled: The GLOBE and Hofstede projects. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 915–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Spangler, M. (2003). Review of benchmarks [revised]. In B. S. Plake, J. Impara, & R. A. Spies (Eds.), The fifteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 124–126). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.Google Scholar
  106. Sparks, T. E., & Gentry, W. A. (2008). Leadership competencies: An exploratory study of what is important now and what has changed since the terrorist attacks of 9/11. Journal of Leadership Studies, 2(2), 22–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., & Sparks, K. (2001). An international study of the psychometric properties of the Hofstede Values Survey Module 1994: A comparison of individual and country/province level results. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50(2), 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  109. Trompenaars, F. (1994). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in business. Chicago, IL: Irwin.Google Scholar
  110. Trompenaars, A., & Hampden-Turner, C. (1998). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in global business (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  111. Van Knippenberg, D., & Hogg, M. A. (2003). A social identity model of leadership effectiveness in organizations. In B. Staw & R. M. Kramer (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, 25 (pp. 245–297). Greenwich, CN: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  112. Vanhala, S., Kaarelson, T., & Alas, R. (2006). Converging human resource management: A comparison between Estonian and Finnish HRM. Baltic Journal of Management, 1(1), 82–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Webber, R. H. (1969). Convergence or divergence. Columbia Journal of World Business, 4, 75–83.Google Scholar
  114. Wolfe Morrison, E., Wheeler-Smith, S. L., & Kamdar, D. (2011). Speaking up in groups: A cross-level study of group voice climate and voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 183–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Yukl, G. A. (2006). Leadership in organizations (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  116. Zakaria, N., Amelinckx, A., & Wilemon, D. (2004). Working together apart?: Building a knowledge-sharing culture for global virtual teams. Creativity and Innovation Management, 13, 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zedeck, S. (1995). Review of benchmarks. In J. Conoley & J. Impara (Eds.), The twelfth mental measurements yearbook (Vol. 1, pp. 128–129). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research, Innovation, and Product DevelopmentCenter for Creative LeadershipGreensboroUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations