Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 257–270

Exploring the Relationships Between Perceived Coworker Loafing and Counterproductive Work Behaviors: The Mediating Role of a Revenge Motive

Article

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between perceived coworker loafing and counterproductive work behaviors toward the organization (CWB-O) and toward the coworkers (CWB-I).

Design/Methodology/Approach

Data were collected from 184 supervisor–employee pairs from multiple sources (i.e., self-rated and supervisor-rated). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses were conducted to test our hypotheses.

Findings

The results of SEM showed that perceived loafing was positively related to CWB-O (self-rated) and CWB-I (self-rated and supervisor-rated). Moreover, a revenge motive toward the organization fully mediated the relationship between perceived loafing and CWB-O, whereas a revenge motive toward coworkers fully mediated the relationship between perceived loafing and CWB-I.

Implications

This study advances our understanding as to how and why perceived coworker loafing increases employees’ CWB-I and CWB-O. Our investigation also highlights the important cognitive mediator: revenge motive in the perceived loafing–CWB linkage.

Originality/Value

This is one of the first studies which examines the relationships between perceived coworker loafing and two facets of CWB, and investigates a cognitive mediator (i.e., a revenge motive) that underlines the perceived loafing–CWB linkage. In addition, we respond to Bennett and Robinson’s (J Appl Psychol 85:349–360, 2003) call to test the nomological network of CWB in a collectivist culture (i.e., Taiwan).

Keywords

Counterproductive work behavior Perceived loafing Revenge Collectivist culture Taiwan 

References

  1. Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267–299). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411–423. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aquino, K., Tripp, T. M., & Bies, R. J. (2001). How employees respond to personal offense: The effects of blame attribution, victim status, and offender status on revenge and reconciliation in the workplace. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 52–59. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 421–458. doi:10.2307/2393203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barclay, L. J., Skarlicki, D. P., & Pugh, S. D. (2005). Exploring the role of emotions in injustice perceptions and retaliation. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 629–643. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical consideration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baron, R. A., & Neuman, J. H. (1996). Workplace violence and workplace aggression: Evidence on their relative frequency and potential causes. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 161–173. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1996)22:3<161::AID-AB1>3.0.CO;2-Q.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bass, B. M. (1998). Transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, R. J., & Robinson, S. L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 349–360. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bennett, R. J., & Robinson, S. L. (2003). The past, present, and future of workplace deviance research. In J. Greenberg (Ed.), Organizational behavior: The state of the science (pp. 247–281). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Bentler, P. M. (1995). EQS: Structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software.Google Scholar
  12. Berry, C. M., Ones, D. S., & Sackett, P. R. (2007). Interpersonal deviance, organizational deviance, and their common correlates: A review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 410–424. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.2.410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beugre, C. D. (2005). Reacting aggressively to injustice at work: A cognitive stage model. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20, 291–301. doi:10.1007/s10869-005-8265-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bies, R. J., & Moag, J. F. (1986). Interactional justice: Communication criteria of fairness. In R. J. Lewicki, B. H. Sheppard, & M. H. Bazerman (Eds.), Research on negotiations (Vol. 1, pp. 43–55). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bies, R. J., & Tripp, T. M. (1996). Beyond distrust: Getting even and the need for revenge. In R. M. Kramer & T. Tyler (Eds.), Trust and organizations (pp. 246–260). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Bies, R. J., & Tripp, T. M. (2001). A passion for justice: The rationality and mortality of revenge. In R. Cropanzano (Ed.), Justice in the work place: From theory to practice (Vol. 2, pp. 197–208). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  17. Bies, R. J., Tripp, T. M., & Kramer, R. M. (1997). At the breaking point: Cognitive and social dynamics of revenge in organizations. In R. A. Giacalone & J. Greenberg (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in organizations (pp. 18–36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  20. Burk-Lee, V., & Spector, P. E. (2006). The social stressors-counterproductive work behaviors link: Are conflicts with supervisors and coworkers the same? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11, 145–156. doi:10.1037/1076-8998.11.2.145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cable, D. M., & DeRue, D. S. (2002). The Convergent and discriminant validity of subjective fit perceptions. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 875–884. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.87.5.875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Comer, D. R. (1995). A model of social loafing in real work group. Human Relations, 48, 430–452. doi:10.1177/001872679504800603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dalal, R. S. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1241–1255. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diefendorff, J. M., & Mehta, K. (2007). The relations of motivational traits with workplace deviance. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 967–977. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eisenberger, R., Lynch, P., Aselage, J., & Rohdieck, S. (2004). Who takes the most revenge? Individual differences in negative reciprocity norm endorsement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 787–799. doi:10.1177/0146167204264047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Felps, W., Mitchell, T. R., & Byington, E. (2006). How, when, and why bad apples spoil the barrel: Negative group members and dysfunctional groups. Research in Organizational Behavior, 27, 181–230. doi:10.1016/S0191-3085(06)27005-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fox, S., & Spector, P. E. (1999). A model of work frustration–aggression. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 915–931. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199911)20:6<915::AID-JOB918>3.0.CO;2-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fox, S., Spector, P. E., Goh, A., & Bruursema, K. (2007). Does your coworker know what you’re doing? Convergence of self- and peer-reports of counterproductive work behavior. International Journal of Stress Management, 14, 41–60. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.14.1.41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fox, S., Spector, P. E., & Miles, D. (2001). Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to job stressors and organizational justice: Some mediator and moderator tests for autonomy and emotions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 291–309. doi:10.1006/jvbe.2001.1803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glomb, T. M., & Liao, H. (2003). Interpersonal aggression in work groups: Social influences, reciprocal and individual effects. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 486–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hofmann, D. A., & Gavin, M. B. (1998). Centering decisions in hierarchical linear models: Implications for research in organizations. Journal of Management, 24, 623–641.Google Scholar
  32. Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  33. Hogan, J., & Hogan, R. (1989). How to measure employee reliability. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 273–279. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.74.2.273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jones, D. A. (2004). Toward a better understanding of fairness in the workplace: Attitude strength, predictive asymmetry, and the revenge motive. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary, Canada.Google Scholar
  35. Jones, D. A. (2009). Getting even with one’s supervisor and one’s organization: Relationships among types of injustice, desires for revenge, and counterproductive work behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, (in press). doi:10.1002/job.563.
  36. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1999). LISREL: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  37. Judge, T. A., Scott, B. A., & Ilies, R. (2006). Hostility, job attitudes, and workplace deviance: Test of a multilevel model. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 126–138. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.1.126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kidwell, R. E., & Bennett, N. (1993). Employee propensity to withhold effort: A conceptual model to intersect three avenues of research. Academy of Management Review, 18, 429–456. doi:10.2307/258904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Korsgaard, M. A., & Roberson, L. (1995). Procedural justice in performance evaluation: The role of instrumental and non-instrumental voice in performance appraisal discussions. Journal of Management, 21, 657–669. doi:10.1177/014920639502100404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kwok, C. K., Au, W. T., & Ho, J. C. (2005). Normative controls and self-reported counterproductive behaviors in the workplace in China. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54, 456–475. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00220.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lau, C. S., Au, W. T., & Ho, M. C. (2003). A qualitative and quantitative review of antecedents of counterproductive behavior in organizations. Journal of Business and Psychology, 18, 73–99. doi:10.1023/A:1025035004930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liao, H., Joshi, A., & Chuang, A. (2004). Sticking out like a sore thumb: Employee dissimilarity and deviance at work. Personnel Psychology, 57, 969–1000. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2004.00012.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Jaworski, R. A., & Bennett, N. (2004). Social loafing: A field investigation. Journal of Management, 30, 285–304. doi:10.1016/j.jm.2003.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Martinko, M. J., Gundlach, M. J., & Doglas, S. C. (2002). Toward an integrative theory of counterproductive workplace behavior: A causal reasoning perspective. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 36–50. doi:10.1111/1468-2389.00192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mount, M., Ilies, R., & Johnson, E. (2006). Relationship of personality traits and counterproductive work behaviors: The mediating effects of job satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 59, 591–622. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00048.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mulvey, P. W., & Klein, H. J. (1998). The impact of perceived loafing and collective efficacy in group goal processes and group performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 74, 62–87. doi:10.1006/obhd.1998.2753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. O’Driscoll, M. P., Pierce, J. L., & Coghlan, A. (2006). The psychological ownership: Work environment structure, organizational commitment, and citizenship behavior. Group & Organization Management, 31, 388–416. doi:10.1177/1059601104273066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Penney, L. M., & Spector, P. E. (2005). Job stress, incivility, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB): The moderating role of negative affectivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 777–796. doi:10.1002/job.336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavior research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12, 531–544. doi:10.1177/014920638601200408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717–731.Google Scholar
  52. Robinson, S. L., & Bennett, R. J. (1995). A typology of deviant workplace behaviors: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 555–572. doi:10.2307/256693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Robinson, S. L., & O’Leary-Kelly, A. M. (1998). Monkey see, monkey do: The influence of work groups on the antisocial behavior of employees. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 658–672. doi:10.2307/256963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rotundo, M., & Sackett, P. R. (2002). The relative importance of task, citizenship, and counterproductive performance to global ratings of job performance: A policy-capturing approach. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 66–80. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sackett, P. R. (2002). The structure of counterproductive behaviors: Dimensionality and relationships with facets of job performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 5–11. doi:10.1111/1468-2389.00189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schmitt, N., Cortina, J. M., Ingerick, M. J., & Wiechmann, D. (2003). Personnel selection and employee performance. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 77–105). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  57. Schwab, D. P. (2005). Research methods for organizational studies (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  58. Skarlicki, D. P., & Folger, R. (1997). Retaliation in the workplace: The roles of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 434–443. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.3.434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 290–312). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  60. Sommers, J. A., Schell, T. L., & Vodanovich, S. J. (2002). Developing a measure of individual differences in organizational revenge. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17, 207–222. doi:10.1023/A:1019633531675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Spector, P. E. (2006). Method variance in organizational research: Truth or urban legend? Organizational Research Methods, 9, 221–232. doi:10.1177/1094428105284955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2002). An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior: Some parallels between counterproductive work behavior (CWB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Human Resource Management Review, 12, 269–292. doi:10.1016/S1053-4822(02)00049-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2003). Reducing subjectivity in the assessment of the job environment: Development of the Factual Autonomy Scale (FAS). Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 417–432. doi:10.1002/job.199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thau, S., Aquino, K., & Wittek, R. (2007). An extension of uncertainty management theory to the self: The relationship between justice, social comparison orientation, and antisocial work behaviors. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 250–258. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Venkataramani, V., & Dalal, R. S. (2007). Who helps and harms who? Relational antecedents of interpersonal helping and harming in organizations. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 952–966. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Vigoda, E. (2002). Stress-related aftermaths to workplace politics: The relationship among politics, job distress, and aggressive behavior in organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 571–591. doi:10.1002/job.160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Whetten, D. A. (1989). What constitutes a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 14, 490–495. doi:10.2307/258554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Worthington, R. L., & Whittaker, T. A. (2006). Scale development research: A content analysis and recommendations for best practices. The Counseling Psychologist, 34, 806–838. doi:10.1177/0011000006288127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Human Resource ManagementNational ChangHua University of EducationChangHua CityTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Department of Business AdministrationNational Chengchi UniversityTaipeiTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations