Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 65–82 | Cite as

Employees’ mood, perceptions of fairness, and organizational citizenship behavior



Previous research findings concerning employees’ perceptions of fairness and positive mood as predictors of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) have been equivocal. Explanations for this inconsistency may be related to the varying types of manipulation techniques adopted and samples tested. To address these issues, the present study adopted the mood and fairness manipulation techniques of Bachrach and Jex (2000, Journal of Applied Psychology, 30(3), 641–663) to investigate their effect on OCB amongst a sample of 138 employees from five large service organizations. The findings revealed that employees’ perceptions of fairness affected their likelihood to perform organizational citizenship behaviors. One implication of this finding is that employees’ perceptions of fairness may have a more enduring effect, in comparison to their mood, on increasing their extra role work behaviors. However, a close evaluation of the mood manipulation technique suggests that further research is needed before any firm conclusions can be made on the relative effect of empolyees’ perceived fairness and positive mood on OCB.


organizational citizenship behavior employees’ mood workplace fairness organizational effectiveness. 


  1. Bachrach D. G., Jex S. M., (2000). Organizational citizenship and mood: An experimental test of perceived job breadth Journal of Applied Social Psychology 30(3): 641–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blau P. M., (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlson M., Charlin V., Miller N., (1988). Positive mood and helping behavior: A test of six hypotheses Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55(2): 211–229CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Crowne D. P., Marlowe D., (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology Journal of Consulting Psychology 24(4):349–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Folger R., Konovsky M. A., (1989). Effects of procedural and distributive justice on reactions to pay raise decisions Academy of Management Journal 32:115–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Forgas J. P., George J. M., (2001). Affective influences on judgements and behavior in organizations: An information processing perspective Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 86(1):3–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. George J. M., Jones G. R., (1996). The experience of work and turnover intentions: Interactive effects of value attainment, job satisfaction, and positive mood Journal of Applied Psychology 81(3):318–325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. George J. M., (1991). State or trait: Effects of positive mood on prosocial behaviors at work Journal of Applied Psychology 76(2): 299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Isen A. M., Daubman K. A., (1984). The influence of affect on categorisation Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47(6): 1206–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Konovsky M. A., Pugh S. D., (1994). Citizenship behavior and social exchange Academy of Management Journal 37(3): 656–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. McNeely B. L., Meglino B. M., (1994). The role of dispositional and situational antecedents in prosocial organizational behavior: An examination of the intended beneficiaries of prosocial behavior The Journal of Applied Psychology 79(6): 836–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mackinnon A., Jorm A. F., Christensen H., Korten A. E., Jacomb P. A., Rodgers B., (1999). A short form of the positive and negative affect schedule: Evaluation of factorial validity and invariance across demographic variables in a community sample Personality and Individual Differences 27: 405–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mitchell, M. M. (2000). Able but not motivated? The relative effects of happy and sad mood on persuasive message processing. Communication Monographs, 67(2), 215-225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Moorman R. H., (1993). The influence of cognitive and affective based job satisfaction measures on the relationship between satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior Human Relations 46(6): 759–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moorman R. H., (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship Journal of Applied Psychology 76(6): 845–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Morrison E. W., (1994). Role definitions and organizational citizenship behavior: The importance of the employee’s perspective Academy of Management Journal 37(6): 1543–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Organ D. W., (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington Books, Lexington, MAGoogle Scholar
  18. Organ D. W., (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s construct clean-up time Human Performance 10(2): 85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Organ D. W., Konovsky M., (1989). Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behavior Journal of Applied Psychology 74(1): 157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Piaget J., (1981). Intelligence and affectivity. Annual Reviews, Inc., Palo Alto, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  21. Podsakoff P. M., Ahearne M., MacKenzie S. B., (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance Journal of Applied Psychology 82(2): 262–270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Podsakoff P. M., MacKenzie S. B., Paine J. B., Bachrach D. G., (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors. A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research Journal of Management 26(3): 513–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rosenhan D. L., Salovey P., Hargis K., (1981). The joys of helping: Focus of attention mediates the impact of positive affect on altruism Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40(5): 899–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schnake M., (1991). Organizational citizenship: A review, proposed model, and research agenda Human Relations 44(7): 735–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sinclair R. C., Mark M. M., Enzle M. E., Borkovec T. D., Cumbleton A. G. (1994). Toward a multiple-method view of mood induction: The appropriateness of a modified velten mood induction technique and the problems of procedures with group assignment to conditions Basic and Applied Social Psychology 15(4):389–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sloat K. C. (1999). Organizational citizenship Professional Safety 44(4):20–28Google Scholar
  27. Smith C. A., Organ D. W., Near J. P., (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents Journal of Applied Psychology 68(4):653–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tabachnick B. G., Fidell L. S., (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4) Allyn & Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  29. Thompson W. C., Cowan C. L., Rosenhan D. L., (1980). Focus of attention mediates the impact of negative affect on altruism Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38(2):291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Watson D., Clark L. A., Tellegen A., (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scale Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54(6):1063–1070CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Williams S., Shiaw W., (1999). Mood and organizational citizenship behavior: The effects of positive affect on employee organizational citizenship behavior intentions The Journal of Psychology 133(6):656–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Western SydneyPenrith South DCAustralia
  2. 2.University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.School of PsychologyUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations