Performance-based and questionnaire measures of executive function in adolescents with type 1 diabetes
- 14 Downloads
The purpose of the current study was to examine executive function (EF) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes using both performance-based and questionnaire measures in relation to diabetes indicators. Adolescents age 13–17 completed performance-based measures of EF and measures of adherence. Adolescents’ parents reported on adolescents’ EF and adherence. HbA1c and frequency of blood glucose monitoring (glucometer data) were obtained from adolescents’ medical records. None of the performance-based measures of EF were significantly associated with adherence or with HbA1c. Parent-reported problems with EF were associated with poorer adherence, and adolescents who scored in the impaired range of the Behavioral Regulation Index of EF had significantly poorer adherence (both parent-reported adherence and frequency of blood glucose monitoring) and higher HbA1c than those in the normal range. Our findings suggest that parent-reported measures of EF may be more strongly linked to diabetes indicators than performance-based measures.
KeywordsAdherence Adolescents Executive function Diabetes management Type 1 diabetes mellitus
This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (DP3DK097678-01S1).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Emily R. Hamburger, Morgan Lyttle, Bruce E. Compas and Sarah S. Jaser declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and informed consent
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
- Delis, D. C., Kaplan, E., & Kramer, J. H. (2001). Delis–Kaplan executive function system (DKEFS). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Gershon, R. C., Wagster, M. V., Hendrie, H. C., Fox, N. A., Cook, K. F., & Nowinski, C. J. (2013). NIH toolbox for assessment of neurological and behavioral function. Neurology, 8, 119–124.Google Scholar
- Goethals, E. R., de Wit, M., Van Broeck, N., Lemiere, J., Van Liefferinge, D., Bohler, S., et al. (2018). Child and parental executive functioning in type 1 diabetes: Their unique and interactive role toward treatment adherence and glycemic control. Pediatric Diabetes, 19, 520–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guilfoyle, S. M., Crimmins, N. A., & Hood, K. K. (2011). Blood glucose monitoring and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Meter downloads versus self-report. Pediatric Diabetes, 12, 560–566.Google Scholar
- La Greca, A. (2004). Manual for the self care inventory. Miami, FL: University of Miami.Google Scholar
- Lawrence, J. M., Standiford, D. A., Loots, B., Klingensmith, G. J., Williams, D. E., Ruggiero, A., et al. (2006). Prevalence and correlates of depressed mood among youth with diabetes: The SEARCH for diabetes in youth study. Pediatrics, 117, 1348–1358. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-1398 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (2014). Wechsler intelligence scale for children-fifth edition (WISC-V): Technical and interpretive manual. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Clinical Assessment.Google Scholar