Depression and parenting in youth with type 1 diabetes: Are general and diabetes-specific parenting behaviors associated with depressive symptoms over a 2-year period?

  • Katherine W. Dempster
  • Aiyi Liu
  • Tonja R. NanselEmail author


To examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of general parenting style and diabetes-specific parenting behaviors with depression in youth with type 1 diabetes. Participants (n = 390) completed self-report measures of depression at baseline and 2-year follow-up, general parenting style at baseline, and diabetes-specific parenting (conflict, task involvement, and collaborative involvement) at baseline and every 6 months. Logistic regression examined associations of parenting with depression at baseline and 2-year follow-up. A less authoritative parenting style, lower parent collaborative involvement, and greater diabetes-related conflict were associated with baseline depression in the model simultaneously including all parenting variables and covariates. Lower parent collaborative involvement and higher diabetes-related conflict were associated with depression at 2-year follow-up, adjusting for baseline depression and covariates. Parent task involvement was not associated with depression at either time. Findings suggest a protective role of parenting in reducing the risk of depression in youth with type 1 diabetes.


Adolescence Youth with type 1 diabetes Depression Parenting behavior Parenting style 



This research was funded by the intramural research program of the NIH, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Contract #s N01-HD-3-3360, N01-HD-4-3363, N01-HD-4-3362, N01-HD-4-3361, and N01-HD-4-3364.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Katherine W. Dempster, Aiyi Liu, and Tonja R. Nansel declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and Informed consent

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Social and Behavioral Sciences Branch (KWD, TRN), Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Branch (AL)Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human DevelopmentBethesdaUSA

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