Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 188–203 | Cite as

The relationship between indoor tanning and body mass index, physical activity, or dietary practices: a systematic review

  • Carolyn J. HeckmanEmail author
  • Marissa Manning
Article

Abstract

A systemic review was conducted to better understand the relationship between indoor tanning and body mass index (BMI), physical activity, or dietary practices. Articles included in this review were obtained via a systematic search of PubMed following PRISMA guidelines. Available articles were published between September, 2003 and May, 2017 and contained data regarding indoor tanning and BMI, physical activity, or dietary practices. Sixteen publications met final inclusion criteria. Results of this review indicate significant positive associations between indoor tanning and high physical activity levels, playing sports, and both unhealthy and healthy diet and weight control practices. Frequent or dependent indoor tanning was associated with unhealthy dietary practices in most studies or risk for exercise addiction in one study. Results were mixed for BMI. This review demonstrates associations between indoor tanning and physical activity or dietary practices. Despite the use of some unhealthy strategies (e.g., indoor tanning, fasting, vomiting, laxative, or steroid use), common motives for these behaviors include a desire to appear attractive and/or healthy. Findings from this study can help inform future research and possible interventions for individuals engaging in relevant risky health behaviors.

Keywords

Indoor tanning Physical activity Weight BMI Diet Systematic review 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Mary Riley for her assistance with manuscript preparation and Kristen Sorice for her review and feedback on an earlier version of the manuscript.

Funding

This study was funded by the National Cancer Institute (P30CA006927, P30CA072720).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Carolyn J. Heckman and Marissa Manning declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and Informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors

References

  1. Amrock, S. M., & Weitzman, M. (2014). Adolescent indoor tanning use and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP, 35, 165–171.  https://doi.org/10.1097/dbp.0000000000000050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berczik, K., Szabo, A., Griffiths, M. D., et al. (2012). Exercise addiction: Symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiology, and etiology. Substance Use and Misuse, 47, 403–417.  https://doi.org/10.3109/10826084.2011.639120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blashill, A. J. (2013). Psychosocial correlates of frequent indoor tanning among adolescent boys. Body Image, 10, 259–262.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brouse, C. H., Hillyer, G. C., Basch, C. E., & Neugut, A. I. (2011). Geography, facilities, and promotional strategies used to encourage indoor tanning in New York City. Journal of Community Health, 36, 635–639.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-010-9354-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Busch, V., de Leeuw, J. R., de Harder, A., & Schrijvers, A. J. (2013). Changing multiple adolescent health behaviors through school-based interventions: A review of the literature. Journal of School Health, 83, 514–523.  https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cartmel, B., Bale, A. E., Mayne, S. T., et al. (2017). Predictors of tanning dependence in white non-Hispanic females and males. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 31, 1223–1228.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.14138 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chinn, S. (2000). A simple method for converting an odds ratio to effect size for use in meta-analysis. Statistics in Medicine, 19, 3127–3131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Choi, K., Lazovich, D., Southwell, B., Forster, J., Rolnick, S. J., & Jackson, J. (2010). Prevalence and characteristics of indoor tanning use among men and women in the United States. Archives of Dermatology, 146, 1356–1361.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archdermatol.2010.355 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coups, E. J., Manne, S. L., & Heckman, C. J. (2008). Multiple skin cancer risk behaviors in the U.S. population. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34, 87–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2007.09.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Darlow, S. D., Heckman, C. J., & Munshi, T. (2016). Tan and thin? Associations between attitudes toward thinness, motives to tan and tanning behaviors in adolescent girls. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 21, 618–624.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2015.1093643 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Demko, C. A., Borawski, E. A., Debanne, S. M., Cooper, K. D., & Stange, K. C. (2003). Use of indoor tanning facilities by white adolescents in the United States. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 157, 854–860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Diehl, K., Litaker, D. G., Greinert, R., Zimmermann, S., Breitbart, E. W., & Schneider, S. (2010). The prevalence of current sunbed use and user characteristics: The SUN-Study 2008. International Journal of Public Health, 55, 513–516.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-009-0100-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Durlak, J. A. (2009). How to select, calculate, and interpret effect sizes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 917–928.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsp004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fiala, B., Kopp, M., & Gunther, V. (1997). Why do young women use sunbeds? A comparative psychological study. British Journal of Dermatology, 137, 950–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T.-A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173–206.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Friedman, B., English, J. C., 3rd, & Ferris, L. K. (2015). Indoor tanning, skin cancer and the young female patient: A review of the literature. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 28, 275–283.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2014.07.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gillen, M. M., & Markey, C. H. (2017). Beauty and the burn: Tanning and other appearance-altering attitudes and behaviors. Psychology, Health and Medicine.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2017.1330544
  18. Green, A. C., Hayman, L. L., & Cooley, M. E. (2015). Multiple health behavior change in adults with or at risk for cancer: A systematic review. American Journal of Health Behavior, 39, 380–394.  https://doi.org/10.5993/ajhb.39.3.11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guy, G. P., Jr., Berkowitz, Z., Tai, E., Holman, D. M., Everett Jones, S., & Richardson, L. C. (2014). Indoor tanning among high school students in the United States, 2009 and 2011. JAMA Dermatology, 150, 501–511.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.7124 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hale, D. R., Fitzgerald-Yau, N., & Viner, R. M. (2014). A systematic review of effective interventions for reducing multiple health risk behaviors in adolescence. American Journal of Public Health, 104, e19–e41.  https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.301874 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harland, E., Griffith, J., Lu, H., Erickson, T., & Magsino, K. (2016). Health behaviours associated with indoor tanning based on the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey. Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada: Research, Policy and Practice, 36, 149–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heckman, C. J., Coups, E. J., & Manne, S. L. (2008a). Prevalence and correlates of indoor tanning among US adults. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 58, 769–780.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2008.01.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Heckman, C. J., Egleston, B. L., Wilson, D. B., & Ingersoll, K. S. (2008b). A preliminary investigation of the predictors of tanning dependence. American Journal of Health Behavior, 32, 451–464.  https://doi.org/10.5555/ajhb.2008.32.5.451 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Heckman, C. J., Wilson, D. B., & Ingersoll, K. S. (2009). The influence of appearance, health, and future orientations on tanning behavior. American Journal of Health Behavior, 33, 238–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holman, D. M., & Watson, M. (2013). Correlates of intentional tanning among adolescents in the United States: A systematic review of the literature. The Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 52, S52–S59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.09.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Huang, C. M., & Kirchhof, M. G. (2017). A cross-sectional study of indoor tanning in fitness centres. Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, 21, 401–407.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1203475417706059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. James, E., Freund, M., Booth, A., et al. (2016). Comparative efficacy of simultaneous versus sequential multiple health behavior change interventions among adults: A systematic review of randomised trials. Preventive Medicine, 89, 211–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.06.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jardine, A., Bright, M., Knight, L., Perina, H., Vardon, P., & Harper, C. (2012). Does physical activity increase the risk of unsafe sun exposure? Health Promotion Journal of Australia: Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals, 23, 52–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Knight, J. M., Kirincich, A. N., Farmer, E. R., & Hood, A. F. (2002). Awareness of the risks of tanning lamps does not influence behavior among college students. Archives of Dermatology, 138, 1311–1315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Knight, A., Shakeshaft, A., Havard, A., Maple, M., Foley, C., & Shakeshaft, B. (2017). The quality and effectiveness of interventions that target multiple risk factors among young people: A systematic review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 41, 54–60.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1753-6405.12573 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Landolfi, E. (2013). Exercise addiction. Sports Medicine, 43, 111–119.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-012-0013-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meader, N., King, K., Moe-Byrne, T., et al. (2016). A systematic review on the clustering and co-occurrence of multiple risk behaviours. BMC Public Health, 16, 657.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3373-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meader, N., King, K., Wright, K., et al. (2017). Multiple risk behavior interventions: Meta-analyses of RCTs. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 53, e19–e30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meyer, M. K. H., Koster, B., Juul, L., et al. (2017). Sunbed use among 64,000 Danish students and the associations with demographic factors, health-related behaviours, and appearance-related factors. Preventive Medicine, 100, 17–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.03.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Miyamoto, J., Berkowitz, Z., Jones, S. E., & Saraiya, M. (2012). Indoor tanning device use among male high school students in the United States. The Journal of adolescent health: Official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine., 50, 308–310.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moore, S. C., Lee, I., Weiderpass, E., et al. (2016). Association of leisure-time physical activity with risk of 26 types of cancer in 1.44 million adults. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176, 816–825.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.1548 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. O’Riordan, D. L., Field, A. E., Geller, A. C., et al. (2006). Frequent tanning bed use, weight concerns, and other health risk behaviors in adolescent females (United States). Cancer Causes and Control, 17, 679–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pagoto, S. L., Nahar, V. K., Frisard, C., et al. (2018). A comparison of tanning habits among gym tanners and other tanners. JAMA Dermatology, 154, 1090–1091.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.1779 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Petit, A., Karila, L., Chalmin, F., & Lejoyeaux, M. (2014). Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning. International Journal of Dermatology, 53, 664–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Qin, J., Holman, D. M., Jones, S. E., Berkowitz, Z., & Guy, G. P., Jr. (2018). State Indoor tanning laws and prevalence of indoor tanning among US high school students, 2009–2015. American Journal of Public Health, 108, 951–956.  https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2018.304414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Razzoli, M., Pearson, C., Crow, S., & Bartolomucci, A. (2017). Stress, overeating, and obesity: Insights from human studies and preclinical models. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 76, 154–162.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.01.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Santos, I., Sniehotta, F. F., Marques, M. M., Carraca, E. V., & Teixeira, P. J. (2017). Prevalence of personal weight control attempts in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews : An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 18, 32–50.  https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12466 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schneider, S., & Kramer, H. (2010). Who uses sunbeds? A systematic literature review of risk groups in developed countries. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24, 639–648.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2009.03509.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schwebel, D. C. (2014). Adolescent tanning, disordered eating, and risk taking. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP, 35, 225–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Seidenberg, A. B., Mahalingam-Dhingra, A., Weinstock, M. A., Sinclair, C., & Geller, A. C. (2015). Youth indoor tanning and skin cancer prevention: Lessons from tobacco control. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 48, 188–194.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2014.08.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tran, A. D., Aalborg, J., Asdigian, N. L., et al. (2012). Parents’ perceptions of skin cancer threat and children’s physical activity. Preventing Chronic Disease, 9, E143.  https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd9.110345 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Webb, M. J., Kauer, S. D., Ozer, E. M., Haller, D. M., & Sanci, L. A. (2016). Does screening for and intervening with multiple health compromising behaviours and mental health disorders amongst young people attending primary care improve health outcomes? A systematic review. BMC Family Practice, 17, 104.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-016-0504-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Williams Merten, J., King, J. L., Walsh-Childers, K., Vilaro, M. J., & Pomeranz, J. L. (2015). Skin cancer risk and other health risk behaviors: A scoping review. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine., 11, 182–196.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1559827615594350 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yoo, J.-J., & Kim, H.-Y. (2012). Adolescents’ body-tanning behaviours: Influences of gender, body mass index, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance and body satisfaction. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 36, 360–366.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2011.01009.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Population Science, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Philadelphia College of Osteopathic MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations