Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 315–329 | Cite as

Daily and longitudinal associations of out-of-home time with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior among middle-aged and older adults

  • Kazuhiro HaradaEmail author
  • Kouhei Masumoto
  • Narihiko Kondo


This study examined the associations of time spent out of home with physical activity and sedentary behavior among middle-aged and older adults. A diary survey was conducted for 7 days with 157 adults to measure out-of-home time and working status. Time spent in sedentary behavior and levels of physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. After a year, 137 individuals from the original sample participated in a follow-up survey. From the daily analyses of 535 non-working days and 347 working days, multilevel models revealed that on non-working days, more out-of-home time was associated with less sedentary time and higher levels of physical activity at both within- and between-person levels. Longitudinal analyses of non-working days supported these results. However, on working days, similar associations were not revealed by daily or longitudinal analyses. These results suggest that increasing out-of-home time could contribute to increased physical activity and reduced sedentary behavior on non-working days.


Exercise Health behavior Healthy aging Homebound persons Sedentary lifestyle 



This work was supported by the Program for Promoting the Reform of National Universities (Kobe University), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology; and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (17H04757), Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Kazuhiro Harada, Kouhei Masumoto, Narihiko Kondo declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and animal rights and Informed consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Active Aging Research Hub, Graduate School of Human Development and EnvironmentKobe UniversityKobe CityJapan

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