Stationary cycling exergame use among inactive children in the family home: a randomized trial
Exergames may be one way to increase child physical activity, but long term adherence has seen little research attention. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the usage of an exergame bike in comparison to a stationary bike in front of a TV across 3-months within a family home environment among children aged 10–14 years old. Seventy-three inactive children were recruited through advertisements and randomized to either the exergame condition (n = 39) or the standard bike condition (n = 34). Weekly bike use was recorded in a log-book. Both groups declined in bike use over time (t = 3.921, p < .01). Although the exergame group reported higher use (t = 2.0045, p < .05), this was most prominent during the first week. Overall, these results do not support exergames as a standalone physical activity intervention, and suggest that short duration examinations of exergames may be misleading.
KeywordsPhysical activity Enjoyment Intervention Family Motivation
RER is supported by an investigator award through the Canadian Cancer Society and Right to Give Foundation. The trial was funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute. We acknowledge Cara Temmel and Kristina Kowalski for the hard work of trial coordination and data collection.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
Authors Ryan E. Rhodes, Chris M. Blanchard, Shannon S. D. Bredin, Mark R. Beauchamp, Ralph Maddison, and Darren E.R. Warburton declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This study received ethical approval from the University of Victoria Human Research Ethics Board.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
Human and animal rights and Informed Consent. All procedures followed were in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
- American College of Sports Medicine. (2000). Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
- BBC News. (2011). Microsoft Kinect ‘fastest-selling device on record’. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12697975.
- Colley, R. C., Garriguet, D., Janssen, I., Craig, C., Clarke, J., & Tremblay, M. S. (2011). Physical activity of Canadian children and youth: Accelerometer results from the 2007–2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. (Catalogue No. 82-003-XPE).Google Scholar
- Crocker, P. R., Bailey, D. A., Faulkner, R. A., Kowalski, K. C., & McGrath, R. (1997). Measuring general levels of physical activity: Preliminary evidence for the physical activity questionnaire for older children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 1344–1349.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fishbein, M., Triandis, H. C., Kanfer, F. H., Becker, M., Middlestadt, S. E., & Eichler, A. (2001). Factors influencing behavior and behavior change. In A. Baum & T. A. Revenson (Eds.), Handbook of health psychology (pp. 3–17). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Godin, G., & Shephard, R. J. (1985). A simple method to assess exercise behavior in the community. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10, 141–146.Google Scholar
- Koster, R. (2004). A theory of fun for game design. Phoenix: Paraglyph Press.Google Scholar
- Kuczmarski, R. J. (2002). 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States: Methods and development. Vital Health Statistics, 11, 1–90.Google Scholar
- Madigan, J. (2016). Getting gamers: The psychology of videogames and their impact on the people who play them. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
- Maitland, C., Stratton, G., Foster, S., Braham, R., & Rosenberg, M. (2013). A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, 99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mark, R., Rhodes, R. E., Warburton, D. E. R., & Bredin, S. S. G. (2008). Interactive video games and physical activity: A review of literature and future directions. Health and Fitness Journal of Canada, 1, 14–24.Google Scholar
- Ni Mhurchu, C., Maddison, R., Jiang, Y., Jull, A., Prapavessis, H., & Rodgers, A. (2008). Couch potatoes to jumping beans: A pilot study of the effect of active video games on physical activity in children. International Journal of Behavioral Nutiriton and Physical Activity, 5, 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nintendo Co. Ltd. (2017). Historical Data: Consolidated Sales Transition by Region.Google Scholar
- Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, NJ: Sage.Google Scholar
- Public Health Agency of Canada. (2002). Canada’s family guide to physical activity (6–9 years of age). http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/pau-uap/paguide/child_youth/pdf/kids_family_guide_e.pdf.
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, T. A. (2002). Hierarchical linear model: Applications and Data analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Rhodes, R. E., & Quinlan, A. (2014). The family as a context for physical activity promotion. In M. R. Beauchamp & M. A. Eys (Eds.), Group dynamics in exercise and sport psychology (2nd ed., pp. 203–221). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Statistica. (2017). All-time best-selling console games based on global unit sales as of February 2017. https://www.statista.com/statistics/264530/all-time-best-selling-console-games-worldwide/.
- Urbaniak, G. C., & Plous, S. (2015). Research randomizer (Version 4.0). Retrieved on January 20, 2017. Retrieved from http://www.randomizer.org/.