Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 465–471 | Cite as

Successful weight loss maintenance associated with morning chronotype and better sleep quality

  • Kathryn M. Ross
  • J. Graham Thomas
  • Rena R. Wing
Article

Abstract

It is not known whether individuals successful at long term weight loss maintenance differ in chronotype (i.e., being a “morning” or “evening” person) or sleep habits compared to those who are overweight and obese. We compared Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores of 690 National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) members (73 % female, 93 % white, age = 51.7 ± 12.5, BMI = 26.4 ± 5.1) to 75 enrollees in two behavioral weight loss interventions (INT; 77 % female, 88 % white, age = 55.7 ± 10.4, BMI = 36.2 ± 4.7). Controlling for age, MEQ scores were higher in NWCR than INT, p = .004, such that more NWCR than INT were morning-types and fewer were evening types, p = .014. Further, NWCR participants reported better sleep quality, longer sleep duration, and shorter latency to sleep onset compared to INT, ps < .05, and fewer NWCR participants reported <6 or <7 h of sleep, ps < .01. Future studies should examine if these factors change as a result of weight loss or are predictors of weight outcome.

Keywords

Obesity Weight loss maintenance Sleep Chronotype Morningness/eveningness 

References

  1. Adan, A. (1994). Chronotype and personality factors in the daily consumption of alcohol and psychostimulants. Addiction, 89, 455–462. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1994.tb00926.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Backhaus, J., Junghanns, K., Broocks, A., Riemann, D., & Hohagen, F. (2002). Test–retest reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in primary insomnia. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 737–740. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(02)00330-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Broussard, J. L., Ehrmann, D. A., Van Cauter, E., Tasali, E., & Brady, M. J. (2012). Impaired insulin signaling in human adipocytes after experimental sleep restriction: A randomized, crossover study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 157, 549–557. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-8-201210160-00005 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F, I. I. I., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28, 193–213. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Caci, H., Robert, P., & Boyer, P. (2004). Novelty seekers and impulsive subjects are low in morningness. European Psychiatry, 19, 79–84. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2003.09.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cappuccio, F. P., Taggart, F. M., Kandala, N. B., Currie, A., Peile, E., Stranges, S., & Miller, M. A. (2008). Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults. Sleep, 31, 619–626.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Carrier, J., Monk, T. H., Buysse, D. J., & Kupfer, D. J. (1997). Sleep and morningness–eveningness in the “middle” years of life (20–59y). Journal of Sleep Research, 6, 230–237. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.1997.00230.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Copinschi, G., Leproult, R., & Spiegel, K. (2014). The important role of sleep in metabolism. Frontiers of Hormone Research, 42, 59–72. doi:10.1159/000358858 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Edinger, J. D., Wohlgemuth, W. K., Radtke, R. A., Marsh, G. R., & Quillian, R. E. (2001). Cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of chronic primary insomnia: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 285, 1856–1864. doi:10.1001/jama.285.14.1856 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fleig, D., & Randler, C. (2009). Association between chronotype and diet in adolescents based on food logs. Eating Behaviors, 10, 115–118. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2009.03.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Foster, G. D., Borradaile, K. E., Sanders, M. H., Millman, R., Zammit, G., Newman, A. B., et al. (2009). A randomized study on the effect of weight loss on obstructive sleep apnea among obese patients with type 2 diabetes: The Sleep AHEAD study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169, 1619–1626. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.266 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Gangwisch, J. E., Malaspina, D., Boden-Albala, B., & Heymsfield, S. B. (2005). Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: Analyses of the NHANES I. Sleep, 28, 1289–1296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Garaulet, M., Esteban Tardido, A., Lee, Y.-C., Smith, C. E., Parnell, L. D., & Ordovás, J. M. (2012). SIRT1 and CLOCK 3111T> C combined genotype is associated with evening preference and weight loss resistance in a behavioral therapy treatment for obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 36, 1436–1441. doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.270 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Horne, J., Brass, C. G., & Petitt, A. N. (1980). Circadian performance differences between morning and evening “types”. Ergonomics, 23, 29–36. doi:10.1080/00140138008924715 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Horne, J., & Ostberg, O. (1975). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness–eveningness in human circadian rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology, 4, 97–110.Google Scholar
  16. Ishihara, K., Miyasita, A., Inugami, M., Fukuda, K., & Miyata, Y. (1987). Differences in sleep-wake habits and EEG sleep variables between active morning and evening subjects. Sleep: Journal of Sleep Research & Sleep Medicine, 10(4), 330–342.Google Scholar
  17. Jeffery, R. W., Epstein, L. H., Wilson, G. T., Drewnowski, A., Stunkard, A. J., & Wing, R. R. (2000). Long-term maintenance of weight loss: Current status. Health Psychology, 19, 5–16. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.19.Suppl1.5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kerkhof, G. A., Korving, H. J., Geest, H. M. M. W., & Rietveld, W. J. (1980). Diurnal differences between morning-type and evening-type subjects in self-rated alertness, body temperature and the visual and auditory evoked potential. Neuroscience Letters, 16, 11–15. doi:10.1016/0304-3940(80)90093-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kerkhof, G. A., & Van Dongen, H. P. A. (1996). Morning-type and evening-type individuals differ in the phase position of their endogenous circadian oscillator. Neuroscience Letters, 218, 153–156. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(96)13140-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Klem, M. L., Wing, R. R., McGuire, M. T., Seagle, H., & Hill, J. O. (1997). A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66, 239–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kraschnewski, J. L., Boan, J., Esposito, J., Sherwood, N. E., Lehman, E. B., Kephart, D. K., & Sciamanna, C. N. (2010). Long-term weight loss maintenance in the United States. International Journal of Obesity, 34, 1644–1654. doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.94 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Levandovski, R., Dantas, G., Fernandes, L. C., Caumo, W., Torres, I., Roenneberg, T., et al. (2011). Depression scores associate with chronotype and social jetlag in a rural population. Chronobiology International, 28, 771–778. doi:10.3109/07420528.2011.602445 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Lindroos, A. K., Lissner, L., Mathiassen, M. E., Karlsson, J., Sullivan, M., Bengtsson, C., & Sjöström, L. (1997). Dietary intake in relation to restrained eating, disinhibition, and hunger in obese and nonobese Swedish women. Obesity Research, 5, 175–182. doi:10.1002/j.1550-8528.1997.tb00290.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. McGuire, M. T., Wing, R. R., Klem, M. L., Lang, W., & Hill, J. O. (1999). What predicts weight regain in a group of successful weight losers? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 177–185. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.67.2.177 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Monk, T. H., & Kupfer, D. J. (2007). Which aspects of morningness–eveningness change with age? Journal of Biological Rhythms, 22, 278–280. doi:10.1177/0748730407301054 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Natale, V., Ballardini, D., Schumann, R., Mencarelli, C., & Magelli, V. (2008). Morningness–eveningness preference and eating disorders. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 549–553. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.06.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Natale, V., & Cicogna, P. (2002). Morningness–eveningness dimension: Is it really a continuum? Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 809–816. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00085-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Quick, V., Byrd-Bredbenner, C., White, A. A., Brown, O., Colby, S., Shoff, S., et al. (2013). Eat, sleep, work, play: Associations of weight status and health-related behaviors among young adult college students. American Journal of Health Promotion, 29, e64–e72. doi:10.4278/ajhp.130327-QUAN-130 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. SAS Institute Inc. (2011). SAS version 9.3. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
  30. Schubert, E., & Randler, C. (2008). Association between chronotype and the constructs of the Three-Factor-Eating-Questionnaire. Appetite, 51, 501–505. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2008.03.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Sivertsen, B., Omvik, S., Pallesen, S., Bjorvatn, B., Havik, O. E., Kvale, G., et al. (2006). Cognitive behavioral therapy vs zopiclone for treatment of chronic primary insomnia in older adults: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 295, 2851–2858. doi:10.1001/jama.295.24.2851 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Smith, C. S., Reilly, C., & Midkiff, K. (1989). Evaluation of three circadian rhythm questionnaires with suggestions for an improved measure of morningness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 728–738. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.74.5.728 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Spiegel, K., Tasali, E., Penev, P., & Cauter, E. V. (2004). Sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141, 846–850. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-141-11-200412070-00008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Taheri, S., Lin, L., Austin, D., Young, T., & Mignot, E. (2004). Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index. PLoS Med, 1, e62. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0010062 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Taillard, J., Philip, P., Chastang, J.-F., & Bioulac, B. (2004). Validation of Horne and Ostberg Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire in a middle-aged population of French workers. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 19, 76–86. doi:10.1177/0748730403259849 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Thomson, C. A., Morrow, K. L., Flatt, S. W., Wertheim, B. C., Perfect, M. M., Ravia, J. J., et al. (2012). Relationship between sleep quality and quantity and weight loss in women participating in a weight-loss intervention trial. Obesity, 20, 1419–1425. doi:10.1038/oby.2012.62 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Tonetti, L., Adan, A., Caci, H., De Pascalis, V., Fabbri, M., & Natale, V. (2010). Morningness–eveningness preference and sensation seeking. European Psychiatry, 25, 111–115. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2009.09.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Toor, P., Kim, K., & Buffington, C. K. (2012). Sleep quality and duration before and after bariatric surgery. Obesity Surgery, 22, 890–895. doi:10.1007/s11695-011-0541-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Tworoger, S. S., Davis, S., Vitiello, M. V., Lentz, M. J., & McTiernan, A. (2005). Factors associated with objective (actigraphic) and subjective sleep quality in young adult women. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 59, 11–19. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.03.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Vgontzas, A. N., Tan, T. L., Bixler, E. O., Martin, L. F., Shubert, D., & Kales, A. (1994). Sleep apnea and sleep disruption in obese patients. Archives of Internal Medicine, 154, 1705–1711. doi:10.1001/archinte.1994.00420150073007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Vitiello, M. V., Rybarczyk, B., Von Korff, M., & Stepanski, E. J. (2009). Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep and decreases pain in older adults with co-morbid insomnia and osteoarthritis. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 5, 355–362.Google Scholar
  42. Wyatt, H. R., Grunwald, G. K., Mosca, C. L., Klem, M. L., Wing, R. R., & Hill, J. O. (2002). Long-term weight loss and breakfast in subjects in the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity Research, 10, 78–82. doi:10.1038/oby.2002.13 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathryn M. Ross
    • 1
  • J. Graham Thomas
    • 1
  • Rena R. Wing
    • 1
  1. 1.Weight Control & Diabetes Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human BehaviorAlpert Medical School of Brown University & The Miriam HospitalProvidenceUSA

Personalised recommendations