Is procrastination a vulnerability factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease? Testing an extension of the procrastination–health model
- 1.7k Downloads
Personality is an important epidemiological factor for understanding health outcomes. This study investigated the associations of trait procrastination with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (HT/CVD) and maladaptive coping by testing an extension of the procrastination–health model among individuals with and without HT/CVD. Individuals with self-reported HT/CVD (N = 182) and healthy controls (N = 564), from a community sample, completed an online survey including measures of personality, coping, and health outcomes. Logistic regression analysis controlling for demographic and higher order personality factors found that older age, lower education level and higher procrastination scores were associated with HT/CVD. Moderated mediation analyses with bootstrapping revealed that procrastination was more strongly associated with maladaptive coping behaviours in participants with HT/CVD than the healthy controls, and the indirect effects on stress through maladaptive coping were larger for the HT/CVD sample. Results suggest procrastination is a vulnerability factor for poor adjustment to and management of HT/CVD.
KeywordsProcrastination Heart disease Hypertension Coping Personality
The data collection was supported by a research Grant (# 410-2005-0094) from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (Canada) awarded to the author. Preparation of this paper was supported by funding from the Canada Research Chairs program awarded to the author.
Conflict of interest
Fuschia Sirois declare that she has no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all participants for being included in the study.
- Argiropoulou, M. I., Siatis, A., Mathioudakis, K., Ziaka, R., Kalantzi-Azizi, A., & Roussos, P. (2013). Do university students from different cultures procrastinate for the same reasons, to the same extent or have the same consequences? An investigation of academic procrastination in Greece. Paper presented at the 8th Biennial Procrastination Research Conference, Sherbrooke, Quebec.Google Scholar
- Artinian, N. T., Fletcher, G. F., Mozaffarian, D., Kris-Etherton, P., Van Horn, L., Lichtenstein, A. H., et al. (2010). Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 122, 406–441.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Hypertension. Retrieved February 2, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/hyprtens.htm
- Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States. In S. Spacapan & S. Oskamp (Eds.), The social psychology of health: Claremont Symposium on applied social psychology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Daskalopoulou, S. S., Khan, N. A., Quinn, R. R., Ruzicka, M., McKay, D. W., Hackam, D. G., et al. (2012). The 2012 Canadian Hypertension Education program recommendations for the management of hypertension: Blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, and therapy. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 28, 270–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferrari, J. R., & Díaz-Morales, J. F. (2014). Procrastination and mental health coping: A brief report related to students. Individual Differences Research, 12, 8–11.Google Scholar
- Flett, G. L., Blankstein, K. R., & Martin, T. R. (1995). Procrastination, negative self-evaluation, and stress in depression and anxiety: A review and preliminary model. In J. R. Ferrari, J. H. Johnson, & W. G. McCown (Eds.), Procrastination, and task avoidance: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 137–167). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gulliksson, M., Burell, G., Vessby, B., Lundin, L., Toss, H., & Svärdsudd, K. (2011). Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy vs standard treatment to prevent recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease: Secondary prevention in uppsala primary health care project (suprim). Archives of Internal Medicine, 171, 134–140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hayes, A. F. (2013). An introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Jokela, M., Pulkki-Råback, L., Elovainio, M., & Kivimäki, M. (2013). Personality traits as risk factors for stroke and coronary heart disease mortality: pooled analysis of three cohort studies. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1–9.Google Scholar
- Lay, C. H. (1992). Trait procrastination and the perception of person-task characteristics. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 483–494.Google Scholar
- Sirois, F. M. (2001). The wellness behaviors checklist. Unpublished manuscript. Carleton University, Ottawa.Google Scholar
- Sirois, F. M. (2007b). Procrastination and motivations for household safety behaviours: An expectancy-value theory perspective. In L. V. Brown (Ed.), Psychology of Motivation (pp. 153–165). Nova Science Publishers. Google Scholar
- Sirois, F. M., & Kitner, R. (in press). Less adaptive or more maladaptive? A meta-analytic investigation of procrastination and coping. European Journal of Personality.Google Scholar
- Sirois, F. M., Kitner, R., & Hirsch, J. K. (in press). Self-compassion, affect, and health behaviors. Health Psychology.Google Scholar
- Sirois, F. M., Voth, J., & Pychyl, T. A. (2009). “I’ll look after my health, later”: A prospective study of the linkages of procrastination to health and well-being in undergraduate students. Paper presented at the 6th Biennial conference of Counselling the Procrastinator in Academic Settings, York University, Toronto, ON.Google Scholar
- Stainton, M., Lay, C. H., & Flett, G. L. (2000). Trait procrastinators and behavior/trait-specific cognitions. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 297–312.Google Scholar
- Suls, J., & Rittenhouse, J. D. (1990). Models of linkages between personality and disease. In H. S. Friedman (Ed.), Personality and disease (pp. 38–63). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Sutin, A. R., Scuteri, A., Lakatta, E. G., Tarasov, K. V., Ferrucci, L., Costa, P. T., et al. (2010). Trait antagonism and the progression of arterial thickening: Women with antagonistic traits have similar carotid arterial thickness as men. Hypertension, 56, 617–622.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2011). Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. Geneva: Switzerland.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2013a). A global brief on hypertension. Geneva: Switzerland.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2013b). Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs): Fact sheet N°317. Retrieved February 2, 2014, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/