Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 156–165 | Cite as

The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain

  • Soumitri Sil
  • Lynnda M. Dahlquist
  • Caitlin Thompson
  • Amy Hahn
  • Linda Herbert
  • Karen Wohlheiter
  • Susan Horn
Article

Abstract

This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6–13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children’s coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles.

Keywords

Children Pain Cold pressor Distraction Coping 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by Grant No. R01HD050385 from the National Institute for Child Health and Development. The authors thank Jeff Moore and the UMBC Summer Day Camp counselors for arranging the day camp schedule so that the campers could participate in this study, and Michael Buccheri, LaShawna Epps, Patrick Fisher, Wendy Gaultney, Lauren Hall, Anne Marie Porter, Alex Psihogios, Nora Truscello, Serwaa Boakye, Alexandra Chin-Lee, Catherine Dodson, LaTrice Dowtin, and Adele Ferrer for helping with participant recruitment, experimental procedures, and data management.

References

  1. Bernard, R. S., Cohen, L. L., McClellan, C. B., & MacLaren, J. E. (2004). Pediatric procedural approach-avoidance coping and distress: A multitrait-multimethod analysis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 29, 131–141. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsh016 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Christiano, B., & Russ, S. W. (1998). Matching preparatory intervention to coping style: The effects on children’s distress in the dental setting. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 23, 17–27. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/23.1.17 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analyses for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  4. Dahlquist, L. M., Weiss, K. E., Dillinger, L., Law, E. K., Ackerman, C. S., & McKenna, K. D. (2009). Effects of videogame distraction using a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 574–584. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsn023 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dahlquist, L. M., Weiss, K., Law, E., Sil, S., Herbert, L., Horn, S., et al. (2010). Effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in young elementary school-aged children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35, 617–625. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsp082 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Das, D. A., Grimmer, K. A., Sparnon, A. L., McRae, S. E., & Thomas, B. H. (2005). The efficacy of playing a virtual reality game in modulating pain for children with acute burn injuries: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Pediatrics, 5. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431
  7. Eccleston, C., & Crombez, G. (1999). Pain demands attention: A cognitive-affective model of the interruptive function of pain. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 356–366. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.3.356 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fanurik, D., Zeltzer, L. K., Roberts, M. C., & Blount, R. L. (1993). The relationship between children’s coping styles and psychological interventions for cold pressor pain. Pain, 53, 213–222. doi: 10.1016/0304-3959(93)90083-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gershon, J., Zimand, E., Pickering, M., Rothbaum, B., & Hodges, L. (2004). A pilot and feasibility study of virtual reality as a distraction for children with cancer. Journal of American Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 1243–1249. doi: 10.1097/01.chi.0000135621.23145.05 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hoffman, H. G., Doctor, J. N., Patterson, D. R., Carrougher, G. J., & Furness, T. A. (2000). Virtual reality as an adjunctive pain control during burn wound care in adolescent patients. Pain, 85, 305–309. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3959(99)00275-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hoffman, H. G., Seibel, E. J., RIchards, T. L., Furness, T. A., Patterson, D. R., & Sharar, S. R. (2006). Virtual reality helmet display quality influences the magnitude of virtual reality analgesia. The Journal of Pain, 7, 843–850. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2006.04.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jaaniste, T., Hayes, B., & von Baeyer, C. L. (2007). Effects of preparatory information and distraction on children’s cold-pressor pain outcomes: A randomized controlled trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 2789–2799. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2007.07.005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Law, E. F., Dahlquist, L. M., Sil, S., Weiss, K. E., Herbert, L. J., Wohlheiter, K., et al. (2011). Videogame distraction using virtual reality technology for children experiencing cold pressor pain: The role of cognitive processing. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36, 84–94. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsq063 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1987). Transactional theory and research on emotions and coping. European Journal of Personality, 1, 141–169. doi: 10.1002/per.2410010304 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Legrain, V., Van Damme, S., Eccleston, C., Davis, K. D., Seminowicz, D. A., & Crombez, G. (2009). A neurocognitive model of attention to pain: Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence. Pain, 144, 230–232. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2009.03.020 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mahrer, N. E., & Gold, J. (2009). The use of virtual reality for pain control: A review. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 13, 100–109. doi: 10.1007/s11916-009-0019-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miller, S. M., Roussi, P., Caputo, G. C., & Kruus, L. (1995). Patterns of children’s coping with an aversive dental treatment. Health Psychology, 14, 236–246. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.14.3.236 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mudford, O. C., Martin, N. T., Hui, J. K. Y., & Taylor, S. A. (2009). Assessing observer accuracy in continuous recording of rate and duration: Three algorithms compared. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42, 527–539. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2009.42-527 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nash, E. B., Edwards, G. W., Thompson, J. A., & Barfield, W. (2000). A review of presence and performance in virtual environments. International Journal of Human- Computer Interaction, 12, 1–41. doi: 10.1207/S15327590IJHC1201_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Phipps, S., Fairclough, D., & Mulhern, R. K. (1995). Avoidant coping in children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 20, 217–232. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/20.2.217 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Phipps, S., & Srivastava, D. K. (1997). Repressive adaptation in children with cancer. Health Psychology, 16, 521–528. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.16.6.521 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Piira, T., Hayes, B., Goodenough, B., & von Baeyer, C. L. (2006). Effects of attentional direction, age, and coping style on cold-pressor pain in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 835–848. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2005.03.013 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Piira, T., Taplin, J. E., Goodenough, B., & von Baeyer, C. L. (2002). Cognitive-behavioural predictors of children’s tolerance of laboratory-induced pain: Implications for clinical assessment and future directions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 571–584. doi: 10.1016/s0005-7967(01)00073-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  25. Thompson, T., Keogh, E., & French, C. C. (2011). Sensory focusing versus distraction and pain: Moderating effects of anxiety sensitivity in males and females. Journal of Pain, 12, 849–858. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2011.01.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tsao, J. C. I., Fanurik, D., & Zeltzer, L. K. (2003). Long-term effects of a brief distraction intervention on children’s laboratory pain reactivity. Behavior Modification, 27, 217–232. doi: 10.1177/0145445503251583 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Uman, L. S., Chambers, C. T., McGrath, P. J., & Kisely, S. (2008). A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining psychological interventions for needle-related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents: An abbreviated cochrane review. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33, 842–854. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsn031 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. von Baeyer, C., Piira, T., Chambers, C. T., Trapanotto, M., & Zeltzer, L. K. (2005). Guidelines for cold pressor as an experimental pain stimulus for use with children. The Journal of Pain, 6, 218–227. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2005.01.349 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wei, L. J., & Lachin, J. M. (1988). Properties of the urn randomization in clinical trials. Controlled Clinical Trials, 9, 345–364. doi: 10.1016/0197-2456(88)90048-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wint, S. S., Eshelman, D., Steele, J., & Guzzetta, C. E. (2002). Effects of distraction using virtual reality glasses during lumbar punctures in adolescents with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 29, E8–E15. doi: 10.1188/02.ONF.E8-E15 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wolitzky, K., Fivush, R., Zimand, E., Hodges, L., & Rothbaum, B. O. (2005). Effectiveness of virtual reality distraction during a painful medical procedure in pediatric oncology patients. Psychology and Health, 20, 817–824. doi: 10.1080/14768320500143339 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soumitri Sil
    • 1
  • Lynnda M. Dahlquist
    • 1
  • Caitlin Thompson
    • 1
  • Amy Hahn
    • 1
  • Linda Herbert
    • 1
  • Karen Wohlheiter
    • 1
  • Susan Horn
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Maryland Baltimore CountyBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations