Expectations contribute to reduced pain levels during prayer in highly religious participants
- 701 Downloads
Although the use of prayer as a religious coping strategy is widespread and often claimed to have positive effects on physical disorders including pain, it has never been tested in a controlled experimental setting whether prayer has a pain relieving effect. Religious beliefs and practices are complex phenomena and the use of prayer may be mediated by general psychological factors known to be related to the pain experience, such as expectations, desire for pain relief, and anxiety. Twenty religious and twenty non-religious healthy volunteers were exposed to painful electrical stimulation during internal prayer to God, a secular contrast condition, and a pain-only control condition. Subjects rated expected pain intensity levels, desire for pain relief, and anxiety before each trial and pain intensity and pain unpleasantness immediately after on mechanical visual analogue scales. Autonomic and cardiovascular measures provided continuous non-invasive objective means for assessing the potential analgesic effects of prayer. Prayer reduced pain intensity by 34 % and pain unpleasantness by 38 % for religious participants, but not for non-religious participants. For religious participants, expectancy and desire predicted 56–64 % of the variance in pain intensity scores, but for non-religious participants, only expectancy was significantly predictive of pain intensity (65–73 %). Conversely, prayer-induced reduction in pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were not followed by autonomic and cardiovascular changes.
KeywordsPain Cognitive modulation Expectations Prayer Religious coping Autonomic nervous system
The authors thank Chris Frith and Uta Frith for invaluable advice and support, Elise Klæstrup for practical assistance, and Henriette Vuust for technical support. The research was supported by the Interacting Minds project through the Niels Bohr Visiting Professorship of the Danish National Research Foundation to Christopher Frith at Aarhus University (http://www.dg.dk/en/internationalization/the-professorship-programs/the-niels-bohr-visiting-professorships) and by the MINDLab UNIK initiative at Aarhus University, funded by the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (09-065250, http://en.fi.dk/research/unik). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
- Benedetti, F. (2009). Placebo effects: Understanding the mechanisms in health and disease. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Fazalbhoy, A., Birznieks, I., & Macefield, V. G. (2012). Individual differences in the cardiovascular responses to tonic muscle pain: Parallel increases or decreases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, and heart rate. Experimental Physiology, Accepted Article. Published online before print 11 May 2012.Google Scholar
- Pargament, K. I. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Vase, L., Robinson, M. E., Verne, G. N., & Price, D. D. (2003). The contributions of suggestion, desire, and expectation to placebo effects in irritable bowel syndrome patients. An empirical investigation. Pain, 105, 17–25.Google Scholar
- Wachholtz, A. B., & Pargament, K. I. (2005). Is spirituality a critical ingredient of meditation? Comparing the effects of spiritual meditation, secular meditation, and relaxation on spiritual, psychological, cardiac, and pain outcomes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 28, 369–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar