Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 413–426 | Cite as

Expectations contribute to reduced pain levels during prayer in highly religious participants

  • Else-Marie Elmholdt Jegindø
  • Lene Vase
  • Joshua Charles Skewes
  • Astrid Juhl Terkelsen
  • John Hansen
  • Armin W. Geertz
  • Andreas Roepstorff
  • Troels Staehelin Jensen
Article

Abstract

Although the use of prayer as a religious coping strategy is widespread and often claimed to have positive effects on physical disorders including pain, it has never been tested in a controlled experimental setting whether prayer has a pain relieving effect. Religious beliefs and practices are complex phenomena and the use of prayer may be mediated by general psychological factors known to be related to the pain experience, such as expectations, desire for pain relief, and anxiety. Twenty religious and twenty non-religious healthy volunteers were exposed to painful electrical stimulation during internal prayer to God, a secular contrast condition, and a pain-only control condition. Subjects rated expected pain intensity levels, desire for pain relief, and anxiety before each trial and pain intensity and pain unpleasantness immediately after on mechanical visual analogue scales. Autonomic and cardiovascular measures provided continuous non-invasive objective means for assessing the potential analgesic effects of prayer. Prayer reduced pain intensity by 34 % and pain unpleasantness by 38 % for religious participants, but not for non-religious participants. For religious participants, expectancy and desire predicted 56–64 % of the variance in pain intensity scores, but for non-religious participants, only expectancy was significantly predictive of pain intensity (65–73 %). Conversely, prayer-induced reduction in pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were not followed by autonomic and cardiovascular changes.

Keywords

Pain Cognitive modulation Expectations Prayer Religious coping Autonomic nervous system 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Chris Frith and Uta Frith for invaluable advice and support, Elise Klæstrup for practical assistance, and Henriette Vuust for technical support. The research was supported by the Interacting Minds project through the Niels Bohr Visiting Professorship of the Danish National Research Foundation to Christopher Frith at Aarhus University (http://www.dg.dk/en/internationalization/the-professorship-programs/the-niels-bohr-visiting-professorships) and by the MINDLab UNIK initiative at Aarhus University, funded by the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (09-065250, http://en.fi.dk/research/unik). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Else-Marie Elmholdt Jegindø
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Lene Vase
    • 1
    • 3
    • 5
  • Joshua Charles Skewes
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Astrid Juhl Terkelsen
    • 1
  • John Hansen
    • 6
  • Armin W. Geertz
    • 3
    • 4
  • Andreas Roepstorff
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Troels Staehelin Jensen
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Danish Pain Research CenterAarhus University HospitalAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Center of Functionally Integrative NeuroscienceAarhus University HospitalAarhus CDenmark
  3. 3.MINDLab, NeuroCampus AarhusAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  4. 4.Department of Culture and SocietyAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  5. 5.Department of Psychology and Behavioral SciencesAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  6. 6.Department of Health Science and TechnologyAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark

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