The influence of forgiveness and apology on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery in response to mental stress
- 438 Downloads
To investigate the relation between forgiveness and apology as they relate to cardiovascular reactivity and recovery, 29 men and 50 women were exposed to an interpersonal transgression (i.e., verbal harassment) while performing a serial subtraction task. Participants were categorized into high and low forgiveness groups based on scores on the forgiving personality scale. Following the task, approximately half of the participants received an apology from the experimenter for his/her comments during the task. Although no group differences in cardiovascular reactivity were observed during the serial subtraction task, persons high in forgiveness displayed more rapid diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure recovery than persons low in forgiveness. In response to the apology, participants displayed greater high frequency heart rate variability recovery compared to those who did not receive an apology. A significant apology × sex interaction was observed for diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure. Women who received an apology exhibited faster recovery from the transgression than women who did not receive an apology. In contrast, men who received an apology exhibited delayed recovery from the transgression compared to men who did not receive an apology. These results indicate that there are potentially healthful benefits to forgiveness and apology, but the relation is influenced by situation and by sex.
KeywordsForgiveness Apology Heart rate variability Cardiovascular reactivity Cardiovascular recovery
Support for this study was provided by West Virginia University’s Eberly College of Arts and Sciences (Doctoral Research Program) and Department of Psychology (Alumni Fund). We thank Jennifer Friedberg for her assistance in conducting some of the statistical analyses herein.
- Bradburn, N. M. (1969). The structure of well-being. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
- Ellis, R., Sollers I. ii, J., Edelstein, E., & Thayer, J. (2008). Data transforms for spectral analyses of heart rate variability. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 44392-397.Google Scholar
- Kamat, V., Jones, W., & Row, K. (2006). Assessing forgiveness as a dimension of personality. Individual Differences Research, 4(5), 322–330.Google Scholar
- Lawler-Row, K., Karremans, J., Scott, C., Edlis-Matityahou, M., & Edwards, L. (2008). Forgiveness, physiological reactivity and health: The role of anger. International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of The International Organization of Psychophysiology, 68(1), 51–58.Google Scholar
- McCullough, M. E., & Witvliet, C. V. (2002). The psychology of forgiveness. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 446–458). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Seybold, K. S., Hill, P. C., Neumann, J. K., & Chi, D. S. (2001). Physiological and psychological correlates of forgiveness. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 20(3), 250–259.Google Scholar
- Spielberger, C. D. (1995). Revised state-trait personality inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden.Google Scholar
- Thoresen, C. E., Harris, A. H., & Luskin, F. (2000). Forgiveness and health: An unanswered question. In M. E. McCullough, K. I. Pargament, & C. E. Thoresen (Eds.), Forgiveness: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 254–280). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Vandervort, D. J. (2006). Hostility and health: Mediating effects of belief systems and coping styles. Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 25(1), 50–66.Google Scholar
- Witvliet, C. O., Ludwig, T. E., & Bauer, D. J. (2002). Please forgive me: Transgressors’ emotions and physiology during imagery of seeking forgiveness and victim responses. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 21(3), 219–233.Google Scholar
- Zuckerman, M., & Lubin, B. (1985). Manual for the multiple affect adjective checklist. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.Google Scholar