Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 478–488 | Cite as

Negative affect and anger rumination as mediators between forgiveness and sleep quality

  • Rebecca Stoia-Caraballo
  • Mark S. Rye
  • Wei Pan
  • Keri J. Brown Kirschman
  • Catherine Lutz-Zois
  • Amy M. Lyons


Research indicates that forgiveness of interpersonal transgressions relates to better sleep quality, whereas maintaining feelings of anger and hostility relates to poorer sleep quality. However, the mechanisms explaining these relationships have yet to be determined. We examined whether negative affect and anger rumination mediate the relationship between forgiveness of others and sleep quality using a sample of 277 undergraduates from a medium-sized Midwestern Catholic university. Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing forgiveness of others (situational and dispositional), sleep quality (nocturnal sleep and daytime fatigue), negative affect (depression and anxiety), and anger rumination. Using structural equation modeling, we found that negative affect and anger rumination mediated the relationship between forgiveness and sleep quality through two indirect pathways. In one pathway, negative affect mediated between forgiveness and sleep quality. In the second pathway, both negative affect and anger rumination functioned as mediators. Implications for clinicians and researchers are discussed.


Forgiveness Sleep quality Negative affect Rumination Mediation 



The authors would like to thank Adam Reichle for his assistance preparing this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rebecca Stoia-Caraballo
    • 1
  • Mark S. Rye
    • 1
  • Wei Pan
    • 2
  • Keri J. Brown Kirschman
    • 1
  • Catherine Lutz-Zois
    • 1
  • Amy M. Lyons
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of DaytonDaytonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Educational StudiesUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyLoyola University ChicagoChicagoUSA

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