Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 359–376 | Cite as

Effects of Spiritual Mantram Repetition on HIV Outcomes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Jill E. Bormann
  • Allen L. Gifford
  • Martha Shively
  • Tom L. Smith
  • Laura Redwine
  • Ann Kelly
  • Sheryl Becker
  • Madeline Gershwin
  • Patricia Bone
  • Wendy Belding
Article

We examined the efficacy of a psycho-spiritual intervention of mantram repetition—a word or phrase with spiritual associations repeated silently throughout the day–on psychological distress (intrusive thoughts, stress, anxiety, anger, depression), quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction, and existential spiritual well-being in HIV-infected adults. Using a 2-group by 4-time repeated measures design, 93 participants were randomly assigned to mantram (n = 46) or attention control group (n = 47). Over time, the mantram group improved significantly more than the control group in reducing trait-anger and increasing spiritual faith and spiritual connectedness. Actual mantram practice measured by wrist counters was inversely associated with non-HIV related intrusive thoughts and positively associated with quality of life, total existential spiritual well-being, meaning/peace, and spiritual faith. Intent-to-treat findings suggest that a mantram group intervention and actual mantram practice each make unique contributions for managing psychological distress and enhancing existential spiritual well-being in adults living with HIV/AIDS.

KEY WORDS:

HIV/AIDS randomized controlled trial spirituality spiritual therapy meditation mind-body and relaxation techniques intervention study 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jill E. Bormann
    • 1
    • 2
  • Allen L. Gifford
    • 3
  • Martha Shively
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tom L. Smith
    • 1
    • 4
  • Laura Redwine
    • 4
  • Ann Kelly
    • 1
  • Sheryl Becker
    • 1
  • Madeline Gershwin
    • 1
  • Patricia Bone
    • 5
  • Wendy Belding
    • 5
  1. 1.VA San Diego Healthcare SystemSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.School of Nursing, San Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Bedford VA Medical CenterBedfordUSA
  4. 4.University of California San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  5. 5.Veterans Medical Research FoundationSan DiegoUSA

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