Effect of Task Sequence and Preference on On-Task Behavior
This study compared effects of student choice of task sequence to two variations in teacher-manipulated task sequences on on-task behavior of elementary-aged students with disabilities. Researchers modified Call et al.’s (J Appl Behav Anal 42: 723–728, 2009) demand assessment to determine high-, moderate-, and low-probability tasks. Next, researchers applied the results from the demand assessment to inform teacher-manipulated variations in task sequences: a high- to low-probability task sequence and low- to high-probability task sequence. These sequences were then embedded in a visual activity schedule (VAS). Results of task sequence manipulation embedded in a VAS indicated slightly higher median percentages of on-task behavior for the high- to low-probability task sequence. Future directions for research based on these preliminary data are discussed.
KeywordsOn-task behavior Off-task behavior Visual activity schedules Task sequence Student choice
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
- Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis. Essex CM202JE: Pearson Education Limited.Google Scholar
- Cuhadar, S., & Diken, I. H. (2011). Effectiveness of instruction performed through activity schedules of leisure skills of children with autism. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities,46, 386–398.Google Scholar
- Duttlinger, C., Ayres, K. M., Bevill-Davis, A., & Douglas, K. H. (2012). The effects of a picture activity schedule for students with intellectual disability to complete a sequence of tasks following verbal directions. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities,28, 32–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gavran, P. D. & Hernandez, V. (2015). Countee (1.0.4) [Krushka designs s de rl de vc]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com.
- Kazarova, A. (2011). Simple Interval Timer (SIT) (2.0.1) [Off]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com.
- Kern, L., Choutka, C. M., & Sokol, N. G. (2002). Assessment-based antecedent interventions used in natural settings to reduce challenging behavior: An analysis of the literature. Education and Treatment of Children,25, 113–130.Google Scholar
- Kranak, M. P., Alber-Morgan, S. R., & Sawyer, M. R. (2017). A parametric analysis of specific praise rates on the on-task behavior of elementary students with autism. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities,52, 453–464.Google Scholar
- Luke, S., Vail, C. O., & Ayres, K. M. (2014). Using antecedent physical activity to increase on-task behavior in young children. Exceptional Children,80, 489–503.Google Scholar
- Massey, N. G., & Wheeler, T. J. (2000). Acquisition and Generalization of activity schedules and their effects on task engagement in a young child with autism in an inclusive pre-school classroom. Division on Autism and Developmental Disabilities,35, 326–335.Google Scholar
- Miramontez, S. K. H., & Schwartz, I. S. (2016). The effects of physical activity on the on-task behavior of young children with autism spectrum disorders. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education,9, 405–418.Google Scholar