Advertisement

Effects of Teacher-Implemented Coaching to Increase the Accuracy of Data Collected by Paraeducators

  • Rose A. MasonEmail author
  • Alana. G. Schnitz
  • Stephanie Gerow
  • Zhe G. An
  • Howard P. Wills
Original Paper

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of coaching with performance feedback from teachers on accuracy of paraeducators’ momentary time sampling (MTS) data of students’ on-task behavior. Two lead teachers and three paraeducators participated in the study. The relation between coaching and accuracy of the data collection was evaluated using a multiple-baseline across paraeducators design. Baseline data from this study suggest that some paraeducators need explicit instruction in how to collect data with fidelity. Once coaching with performance feedback from teachers was implemented, there was an immediate increase in accuracy of data collection by paraeducators, as measured by inter-rater agreement, indicating a functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables. These results highlight that teacher-led coaching is feasible and effective for increasing paraeducators’ MTS data collection accuracy and provides preliminary evidence that the accuracy maintained 1–2 months following cessation of formal coaching sessions. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

Keywords

Data collection Paraeducators Special education Professional development 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Research (Grant Number R305H140048).

References

  1. Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2003). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (6th ed.). Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.Google Scholar
  2. Babkie, A. M., & Provost, M. C. (2004). Teachers as researchers. Intervention in School and Clinic, 39, 260–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boardman, A. G., Arguelles, M. E., Vaughn, S., Hughes, M. T., & Klingner, J. (2005). Special education teachers views of research-based practices. The Journal of Special Education, 39, 168–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brabec, K., Fisher, K., & Pitler, H. (2004). Building better instruction: How technology supports nine research-proven instructional strategies. Learning & Leading with Technology, 31(5), 6–11.Google Scholar
  5. Brock, M. E., & Carter, E. W. (2013). A systematic review of paraprofessional-delivered educational practices to improve outcomes for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 38(4), 211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brock, M. E., & Carter, E. W. (2015). Effects of a professional development package to prepare special education paraprofessionals to implement evidence-based practice. The Journal of Special Education, 49(1), 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carter, E., O’Rourke, L., Sisco, L. G., & Pelsue, D. (2009). Knowledge, responsibilities, and training needs of paraprofessionals in elementary and secondary schools. Remedial and Special Education, 30, 344–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clare, S. K., Jenson, W. R., Kehle, T. J., & Bray, M. A. (2000). Self-modeling as a treatment for increasing on-task behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 37(6), 517–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Collinson, V. (2000). Staff development by any other name: Changing words or changing practices? Educational Forum, 64, 124–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Council for Exceptional Children. (2004). What every special educator must know: Ethics, standards and guidelines for special educators (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.Google Scholar
  11. Finn, L., Ramasamy, R., Dukes, C., & Scott, J. (2015). Using WatchMinder to increase the on-task behavior of students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(5), 1408–1418.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Giangreco, M. F., Broer, S. M., & Edelman, S. W. (2002). “That was then, this is now!” Paraprofessional supports for students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Exceptionality, 10(1), 47–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Griffin-Shirley, N., & Matlock, D. (2004). Paraprofessionals speak out: A survey. RE: View, 36, 127–137.Google Scholar
  14. Gunter, P. L., Callicott, K., Denny, K., & Gerber, B. L. (2003a). Finding a place for data collection in classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Preventing School Failure, 48(1), 4–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gunter, P. L., Venn, M. L., Patrick, J., Miller, K. A., & Kelly, L. (2003b). Efficacy of using momentary time samples to determine on-task behavior of students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 26, 400–412.Google Scholar
  16. Hume, K., Loftin, R., & Lantz, J. (2009). Increasing independence in autism spectrum disorders: A review of three focused interventions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(9), 1329–1338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. (2004). 20 U.S.C. § 1400.Google Scholar
  18. Jessel, J., Ingvarsson, E. T., Whipple, R., & Kirk, H. (2017). Increasing on-task behavior of an adolescent with autism using momentary differential reinforcement. Behavioral Interventions, 32(3), 248–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kartal, M. S., & Ozkan, S. Y. (2015). Effects of class-wide self-monitoring on on-task behaviors of preschoolers with developmental disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 50(4), 418.Google Scholar
  20. Keller, C. L., Bucholz, J., & Brady, M. P. (2007). Yes, I can! Empowering paraprofessionals to teach learning strategies. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(3), 18–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kratochwill, T. R., Hitchcock, J. H., Horner, R. H., Levin, J. R., Odom, S. L., Rindskopf, D. M., et al. (2013). Single-case intervention research design standards. Remedial and Special Education, 34(1), 26–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kratz, H. E., Locke, J., Piotrowski, Z., Ouellette, R. R., Xie, M., Stahmer, A. C., et al. (2015). All together now: Measuring staff cohesion in special education classrooms. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 33(4), 329–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ledford, J. R., Ayres, K. M., Lane, J. D., & Lam, M. F. (2015). Identifying issues and concerns with the use of interval-based systems in single case research using a pilot simulation study. The Journal of Special Education, 49, 104–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lewis, T. J., Hudson, S., Richter, M., & Johnson, N. W. (2004). Scientifically supported practices in emotional and behavioral disorders: A proposed approach and brief review of current practices. Behavioral Disorders, 29(3), 247–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lewis-Palmer, T., Sugai, G., & Larson, S. (1999). Using data to guide decisions about program implementation and effectiveness. Effective School Practices, 17(4), 47–53.Google Scholar
  26. Logan, K. R., & Stein, S. S. (2001). The research lead teacher model: Helping general education teachers deal with classroom behavior problems. Exceptional Children, 33(3), 10–15.Google Scholar
  27. Luke, S., Vail, C. O., & Ayres, K. M. (2014). Using antecedent physical activity to increase on-task behavior in young children. Exceptional Children, 80(4), 489–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mason, R. A., Schnitz, A. G., Wills, H. P., Rosenbloom, R., Kamps, D. M., & Bast, D. (2017). Impact of a teacher-as-coach model: Improving paraprofessionals fidelity of implementation of discrete trial training for students with moderate-to-severe developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(6), 1696–1707.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Rabiner, D., & Coie, J. D. (2000). Early attention problems and children’s reading achievement: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(7), 859–867.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Rispoli, M., Neely, L., Lang, R., & Ganz, J. (2011). Training paraprofessionals to implement interventions for people autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 14(6), 378–388.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Rivera, C. J., Mason, L. L., Jabeen, I., & Johnson, J. (2015). Increasing teacher praise and on task behavior for students with autism using mobile technology. Journal of Special Education Technology, 30(2), 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rockwell, S. (2008). Working smarter, not harder: Reaching the tough to teach. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 44, 154–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sandall, S. R., Schwartz, I. S., & Lacroix, B. (2004). Interventionists’ perspectives about data collection in integrated early childhood classrooms. Journal of Early Intervention, 26, 161–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schatz, R. B., Peterson, R. K., & Bellini, S. (2016). The use of video self-modeling to increase on-task behavior in children with high-functioning autism. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 32(3), 234–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schepis, M. M., Reid, D. H., Ownbey, J., & Clary, J. (2003). Training preschool staff to promote cooperative participation among young children with severe disabilities and their classmates. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 28(1), 37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shernoff, E. S., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2007). Transporting an evidence-based classroom management program for preschoolers with disruptive behavior problems to a school: An analysis of implementation, outcomes, and contextual variables. School Psychology Quarterly, 22, 449–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Simonsen, B., MacSuga, A. S., Fallon, L. M., & Sugai, G. (2013). The effects of self-monitoring on teachers’ use of specific praise. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(1), 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Smith, S. W., Daunic, A. P., & Taylor, G. G. (2007). Treatment fidelity in applied educational research: Expanding the adoption and application of measures to ensure evidence-based practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 30, 121–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Snyder, P. A., Hemmeter, M. L., & Fox, L. (2015). Supporting implementation of evidence-based practices through practice-based coaching. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 35, 133–143.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0271121415594925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Southall, C. M., & Gast, D. L. (2011). Self-management procedures: A comparison across the autism spectrum. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 46, 155–171.Google Scholar
  41. Stahr, B., Cushing, D., Lane, K., & Fox, J. (2006). Efficacy of a function-based intervention in decreasing off-task behavior exhibited by a student with ADHD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stecker, P. M., Lembke, E. S., & Foegen, A. (2008). Using progress-monitoring data to improve instructional decision making. Preventing School Failure, 52(2), 48–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Richter, M., Johnson, N. W., & Bradley, L. (2006). Assessing antecedent variables: The effects of instructional variables on student outcomes through in-service and peer coaching professional development models. Education and Treatment of Children, 29, 665–692.Google Scholar
  44. Sutherland, K. S., & Wehby, J. H. (2001). Exploring the relationship between increased opportunities to respond to academic requests and the academic and behavioral outcomes of students with EBD: A review. Remedial and Special Education, 22(2), 113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tate, T. L., Thompson, R. H., & McKerchar, P. M. (2005). Training teachers in an infant classroom to use embedded teaching strategies. Education & Treatment of Children, 28, 206–221.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational Studies, College of EducationPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Juniper Gardens Children’s ProjectUniversity of KansasKansas CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of Educational Psychology, School of EducationBaylor UniversityWacoUSA
  4. 4.School of EducationUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations