Journal of Behavioral Education

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 105–115 | Cite as

Mnemonics Strategy Development: Improving Alphabetic Understanding In Turkish Students, At Risk for Failure in EFL Settings



The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of integrated mnemonics on consonant letter naming and consonant sound production for three 4th grade Turkish students, at-risk for failure in an English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classroom. Mnemonic picture cards, where the target consonant letter was embedded as an integral part of the picture, were developed (e.g., the letter C as the clock, the letter D as the drum). Results showed that (a) all three students reached mastery on consonant letter naming, and (b) all three students showed marked improvement for consonant sound production, with one student reaching mastery. Letter-sound correspondence performance remained near instructional levels one week post-intervention. Generalization data showed students could produce some words that began and ended with consonant sounds, once consonant letter-sound correspondence was mastered.


mnemonics EFL alphabetic understanding urban education international education 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anadolu UniversityTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Special EducationMercyhurst CollegeErie
  3. 3.Education DivisionMercyhurst CollegeErie

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