Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 195–214 | Cite as

Mitochondrial dynamics in heart cells: Very low amplitude high frequency fluctuations in adult cardiomyocytes and flow motion in non beating Hl-1 cells

  • Nathalie Beraud
  • Sophie Pelloux
  • Yves Usson
  • Andrey V. Kuznetsov
  • Xavier Ronot
  • Yves Tourneur
  • Valdur SaksEmail author


The arrangement and movement of mitochondria were quantitatively studied in adult rat cardiomyocytes and in cultured continuously dividing non beating (NB) HL-1 cells with differentiated cardiac phenotype. Mitochondria were stained with MitoTracker® Green and studied by fluorescent confocal microscopy. High speed scanning (one image every 400 ms) revealed very rapid fluctuation of positions of fluorescence centers of mitochondria in adult cardiomyocytes. These fluctuations followed the pattern of random walk movement within the limits of the internal space of mitochondria, probably due to transitions between condensed and orthodox configurational states of matrix and inner membrane. Mitochondrial fusion or fission was seen only in NB HL-1 cells but not in adult cardiomyocytes. In NB HL-1 cells, mitochondria were arranged as a dense tubular network, in permanent fusion, fission and high velocity displacements of ~90 nm/s. The differences observed in mitochondrial dynamics are related to specific structural organization and mitochondria-cytoskeleton interactions in these cells.


Mitochondria Movement Cardiomyocytes NB HL-1 cells Image analysis Fluctuations Fusion Fission 


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Supplementary material

Supplementary material I

Visualization of mitochondria motion and arrangement with fluorescent probes (Mitotracker Green) staining mitochondrial membrane. Recordings were performed with high scanning speed confocal microscopy (400ms per frame). (AVI 3.48 mb)

Supplementary material II

The fluctuations of fluorescence intensity (Mitotracker Green) centers are superimposed with the high scanning speed confocal images showing localization of mitochondria in cells. The fluorescence from inside mitochondria is not homogenous and the position of fluorescence center of fluorescence intensity changes in a rather random manner, analogous to a random walk-type of movement (see text). Note that the fluctuations are always restricted to the space of a single mitochondrion. However, but fluctuations may differ among mitochondria from very localized to fluctuations distributed over significant intra-mitochondrial distance. (AVI 5.52 mb)

Supplementary material III

Visualization of effect of trypsin treatment (0.2 µM) on mitochondria arrangement on permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Mitochondria were marked with MitoTracker Red. (WMV 406 kb)

10863_2009_9214_MOESM4_ESM.avi (67.5 mb)
Supplementary material IV Visualisation of mitochondria network dynamics in NB HL-1 cells depending as a function of time t. Very dynamic mitochondria undergoing continuous fission and fusion can be seen, usually forming long and rapidly moving filament structures. (AVI 67.5 mb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nathalie Beraud
    • 1
    • 7
  • Sophie Pelloux
    • 2
  • Yves Usson
    • 3
  • Andrey V. Kuznetsov
    • 4
  • Xavier Ronot
    • 5
  • Yves Tourneur
    • 2
  • Valdur Saks
    • 1
    • 6
    • 8
    Email author
  1. 1.INSERM U884, Laboratory of Fundamental and Applied BioenergeticsJoseph Fourier UniversityGrenobleFrance
  2. 2.INSERM U886, Centre Commun de Quantimétrie, Université Lyon 1Université de LyonLyonFrance
  3. 3.CNRS UMR5525, TIMC-IMAGJoseph Fourier UniversityGrenobleFrance
  4. 4.D.Swarovski Research Laboratory, Department of Transplant SurgeryInnsbruck Medical UniversityInnsbruckAustria
  5. 5.Laboratoire de Dynamique Cellulaire, UMR 5525, UJF-CNRS-INPG-EPHE-ENVLGrenobleFrance
  6. 6.Laboratory of BioenergeticsNational Institute of Chemical Physics and BiophysicsTallinnEstonia
  7. 7.Laboratory of Systems Biology, Institute of CyberneticsTallinn Technical UniversityTallinnEstonia
  8. 8.Laboratory of BioenergeticsJoseph Fourier UniversityGrenoble Cedex 9France

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