Development and Initial Validation of the Adolescent Routines Questionnaire: Parent and Self-Report

  • Jennifer Piscitello
  • Ryan N. Cummins
  • Mary Lou KelleyEmail author
  • Kara Meyer


It is well documented that family routines contribute to children’s wellbeing. Yet, the impact of routines on adolescent adjustment is not fully understood. The paucity of research examining the role of routines in adolescent adjustment is likely due to the lack of empirically derived instruments measuring routines in adolescent populations. Thus, the objective of the current study was to develop psychometrically sound parent and self-report measures of adolescents’ daily routines: The Adolescent Routines Questionnaire: Parent- and Self-Report (ARQ:PR/SR). Following item generation and elimination, a 26-item parent version with a five-factor solution and a 20-item adolescent self-report version with a four-factor solution were derived. Initial reliability and validity estimates suggest adequate to good internal consistency across all subscales and total scores, as well as moderate to good evidence of concurrent and convergent validity for both parent and self-report scales. Additionally, both the parent and self-report versions of the ARQ were positively correlated with adolescent adjustment and negatively correlated with parent-child conflict and externalizing behavior problems. Finally, both measures demonstrated incremental validity in predicting adolescent positive adjustment and adaptive skills above and beyond an existing measure of family routines. These results suggest that the ARQ:PR/SR is a promising new assessment tool for measuring adolescents’ daily routines.


Routines Adolescents Assessment Rating scale 



This study was funded by Louisiana State University Department of Psychology Strategic Research Grant.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Jennifer Piscitello, Ryan N. Cummins, Mary Lou Kelley and Kara Meyer declares that there is no conflict of interest in the present study for any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Additionally, informed consent was obtained from all participants included in this study.


  1. Bartlett, M. S. (1950). Tests of significance in factor analysis. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 3(2), 77–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Black, K., & Lobo, M. (2008). A conceptual review of family resilience factors. Journal of Family Nursing, 14, 33–55. Scholar
  3. Bloomquist, M. L. (2006). Skills training for children with behavior problems: A parent and practitioner guidebook (Revised edition). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  4. Bridley, A., & Jordan, S. S. (2012). Child routines moderate daily hassles and children's psychological adjustment. Children's Health Care, 41(2), 129–144. Scholar
  5. Brody, G. H., & Flor, D. L. (1997). Maternal psychological functioning, family processes and child adjustment in rural, single-parent, African American families. Developmental Psychology, 33, 1000–1011. Scholar
  6. Budescu, M., & Taylor, R. D. (2013). Order in the home: Family routines moderate the impact of financial hardship. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34(2), 63–67. Scholar
  7. Cassidy, A. (1992). When, why, how to get your baby into a routine. Working Mother, 15(56), 58–60.Google Scholar
  8. Cattell, R. B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 245–276. Scholar
  9. Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Conners, C. K. (2008). Conners third edition (Conners 3). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  11. Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7), 1–9.Google Scholar
  12. Cronbach, L. J., & Shavelson, R. J. (2004). My current thoughts on coefficient alpha and successor procedures. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(3), 391–418. Scholar
  13. David, K. B., LeBlanc, M. M., & Self-Brown, S. (2015). Violence exposure in young children: Child-oriented routines as a protective factor for school readiness. Journal of Family Violence, 30(3), 303–314. Scholar
  14. De Los Reyes, A. (2013). Strategic objectives for improving understanding of informant discrepancies in developmental psychopathology research. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 669–682. Scholar
  15. Denham, S. A. (2003). Family health: A framework for nursing. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Publishers.Google Scholar
  16. DeVellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and applications (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  17. Dickstein, S. (2002). Family routines and rituals--the importance of family functioning: Comment on the special section. Journal of Family Psychology, 16(4), 441–444. Scholar
  18. Dunn, T. J., Baguley, T., & Brunsden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: A practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. British Journal of Psychology, 105(3), 399–412. Scholar
  19. Eisenberg, M., Olson, R., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., & Bearinger, L. (2004). Correlations between family meals and psychosocial well-being among adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 158, 792–796. Scholar
  20. Evans, G. W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L. A., Gentile, L., & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment. Psychological Science, 16(7), 560–565. Scholar
  21. Fiese, B. (2006). Family routines and rituals. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7, 286–299. Scholar
  23. Fulkerson, J. A., Story, M., Mellin, A., Leffert, N., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & French, S. A. (2006). Family dinner meal frequency and adolescent development: Relationships with developmental assets and high-risk behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39, 337–345. Scholar
  24. Goldfarb, S. S., Tarver, W. L., Locher, J. L., Preskitt, J., & Sen, B. (2015). A systematic review of the association between family meals and adolescent risk outcomes. Journal of Adolescence, 44, 134–149. Scholar
  25. Greef, A. P., & Wentworth, A. (2009). Resilience in families that have experienced heart-related trauma. Current Psychology, 28, 302–314. Scholar
  26. Grolnick, W. S., Raftery-Helmer, J. N., Marbell, K. N., Flamm, E. S., Cardemil, E. V., & Sanchez, M. (2014). Parental provision of structure: Implementation and correlates in three domains. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 60, 355–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hammons, A. J., & Fiese, B. H. (2011). Is frequency of shared family meals related to the nutritional health of children and adolescents? Pediatrics, 127, e1565–e1574. Scholar
  28. Harris, A. N., Stoppelbein, L., Greening, L., Becker, S. P., Luebbe, A., & Fite, P. (2014). Child routines and parental adjustment as correlates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children diagnosed with ADHD. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 45(2), 243–253. Scholar
  29. IBM Corp. (2016). IBM SPSS Statstics for windows, Versoin 24.0. Armonk: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
  30. Jensen, E. W., James, S. A., Boyce, T., & Hartnett, S. A. (1983). The family routines inventory: Development and validation. Social Science & Medicine, 17, 201–211. Scholar
  31. Kelley, K., & Pornprasertmanit, S. (2016). Confidence intervals for population reliability coefficients: Evaluation of methods, recommendations, and software for composite measures. Psychological Methods, 21(1), 69–92. Scholar
  32. Keltner, B. (1990). Family characteristics of preschool social competence among black children in a head start program. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 21, 95–108. Scholar
  33. Kincaid, J. P., Fishburne Jr, R. P., Rogers, R. L., & Chissom, B. S. (1975). Derivation of new readability formulas (automated readability index, fog count and flesch reading ease formula) for navy enlisted personnel (No. RBR-8-75). Naval technical training command Millington TN research branch.Google Scholar
  34. Kiser, L. J., Bennett, L. H., & Paavola, M. (2005). Family ritual and routine: Comparison of clinical and non-clinical families. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 357–372. Scholar
  35. Kliewer, W., & Kung, E. (1998). Family moderators of the relation between hassles and behavior problems in inner-city youth. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 278–292. Scholar
  36. Koome, F., Hocking, C., & Sutton, D. (2012). Why routines matter: The nature and meaning of family routines in the context of adolescent mental illness. Journal of Occupational Science, 19(4), 312–325. Scholar
  37. Lanza, H., & Taylor, R. (2010). Parenting in moderation: Family routine moderates the relation between school disengagement and delinquent behaviors among Africa American adolescents. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(4), 540–547. Scholar
  38. Larson, R., Dworkin, J., & Gillman, S. (2001). Facilitating adolescents' constructive use of time in one-parent families. Applied Developmental Science, 5, 143–157. Scholar
  39. Loukas, A., & Prelow, H. M. (2004). Externalizing and internalizing problems in low-income Latino early adolescents: Risk, resource, and protective factors. Journal of Early Adolescence, 24, 250–273. Scholar
  40. Manczak, E. M., Williams, D., & Chen, E. (2017). The role of family routines in the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms between parents and their adolescent children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 45(4), 643–656. Scholar
  41. McLoyd, V. C., Toyokawa, R., & Kaplan, R. (2008). Work demands, work-family conflict, and child adjustment in African American families. Journal of Family Issues, 29, 1247–1267. Scholar
  42. Meyer, K., & Kelley, M. L. (2007). Improving homework in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Self- vs. parent-monitoring of homework behavior and study skills. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 29, 25–42. Scholar
  43. Murphy, D. A., Marelich, W. D., Herbeck, D. M., & Payne, D. L. (2009). Family routines and parental monitoring as protective factors among early middle adolescents affected by maternal HIV/AIDS. Child Development, 80(6), 1676–1691. Scholar
  44. Ohannessian, C. M., Laird, R., & De Los Reyes, A. (2016). Discrepancies in adolescents’ and mothers’ perceptions of the family and mothers’ psychological symptomatology. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(10), 2011–2021. Scholar
  45. Portes, P. R., Howell, S. C., Brown, J. H., Eichenberger, S., & Mas, C. A. (1992). Family functions and children's postdivorce adjustment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62, 613–617. Scholar
  46. Prinz, R. J., Foster, S. L., Kent, R. N., & O’Leary, K. D. (1979). Multivariate assesssment of conflict in distressed and nondistressed mother-adolescent dyads. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 691–700. Scholar
  47. Pruitt, D. B. (Ed.). (1998). Your child: What every parent needs to know. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  48. R Core Team. (2013). A language and enviornment for statstical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing Scholar
  49. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior assessment system for children (2nd ed.). Circle Pines: AGS Publishing.Google Scholar
  50. Robin, A. L., & Foster, S. L. (1989). Negotiating parent-adolescent conflict: A behavioral-family systems approach. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  51. Roche, K. M., & Ghazarian, S. R. (2011). The value of family routines for the academic success of vulnerable adolescents. Journal of Family Issues, 33, 874–897. Scholar
  52. Schreier, H., & Chen, E. (2010). Longitudinal relationships between family routines and biological profiles among youth with asthma. Health Psychology, 29(1), 82. Scholar
  53. Seaton, E. K., & Taylor, R. D. (2003). Exploring familial process in urban, low income African American families. Journal of Family Issues, 24, 627–644. Scholar
  54. Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s alpha. Psychometrika, 74(1), 107. Scholar
  55. Sytsma, S. E., Kelley, M. L., & Wymer, J. H. (2001). Development and initial validation of the child routines inventory. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 241–251. Scholar
  56. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  57. Taylor, R. D., & Lopez, E. I. (2005). Family management practice, school achievement, and problem behavior in African American adolescents: Mediating processes. Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 39–49. Scholar
  58. Taylor, R., Rodriguez, E., Seaton, E. K., & Dominguez, A. (2004). Association of financial resources with parenting and adolescent adjustment in African American families. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(3), 267–283. Scholar
  59. Thompson, R. A., & Meyer, S. (2009). Socialization of emotion regulation in the family. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 249–268). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  60. Vuchinich, S., Emery, R. E., & Cassidy, J. (1988). Family members as third parties in dyadic family conflict: Strategies, alliances and outcomes. Child Development, 59, 1293–1302. Scholar
  61. Wolchik, S. A., Wilcox, K. L., Tein, J., & Sandler, I. N. (2000). Maternal acceptance and consistency of discipline as buffers of divorce stressors on children’s psychological adjustment problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 87–102. Scholar
  62. Yang, Y., & Green, S. B. (2011). Coefficient alpha: A reliability coefficient for the 21st century? Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29(4), 377–392. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer Piscitello
    • 1
  • Ryan N. Cummins
    • 1
  • Mary Lou Kelley
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kara Meyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations