Dimensional Pathological Personality Predicting Personality Disorders: Comparison of the DAPP-BQ and PID-5 Shortened Versions in a Spanish Community Sample
This study explored the psychometric properties of the shortened forms of The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ) and The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in a large cohort from a Spanish community and compared simultaneously the predictive power with regard to personality disorders (PDs) scores in the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE). The IPDE is a self-report inventory of 77 items. Each item measures a criterion and a dimensional score can be obtained for each personality disorder. Both shortened forms (named DAPP-90 and PID-5/SF, respectively) obtained a good structural validity and reliability. Linear regression analysis showed that both questionnaires were predictive of the PDs scores. DAPP-90 factors explained about 25% of PDs variance (37% of the PDs clusters). Facets slightly increased the percentages accounting for PDs variance and clusters to 31% and 43%, respectively. PID-5/SF factors, meanwhile, explained 23% of PDs and 33% of PDs clusters, while the facets accounted for 25% of PDs and 37% of clusters. It is concluded that both questionnaires were good instruments for measuring pathological personality, and predicted a similar part of the variance in PDs. However, given that neither the DAPP-90 nor the PID-5/SF accounted for all the variation in PDs, categorical classification of the broader set of PDs may continue to be desired by some researchers and practicing clinicians.
KeywordsDAPP-BQ DAPP-90 PID-5 PID-5/SF Personality disorders
This research was supported by the “Plan Nacional” (grant number PSI2015–63551-P), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Spain, and was performed within the Catalonian Consolidated Research Group SGR 0008 (2017–2019).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of Interest
A. Aluja, L. F. García, L. Cuevas and I Lucas declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. The statement about ethical approval has been included.
- Aluja Fabregat, A., Blanch Plana, A., Blanco Calvo, E., Marti Guiu, M., & Balada, F. (2014). The dimensional assessment of personality psychopathology basic questionnaire: shortened versions item analysis. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 17(102), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2014.109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ashton, M. C., Lee, K., de Vries, R. E., Hendrickse, J., & Born, M. P. (2012). The maladaptive personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in relation to the HEXACO personality factors and schizotypy/dissociation. Journal of Personality Disorders, 26(5), 641–659. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2012.26.5.641.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bastiaens, T., Claes, L., Smits, D., De Clercq, B., De Fruyt, F., Rossi, G., et al. (2016). The construct validity of the Dutch personality inventory for DSM-5 personality disorders (PID-5) in a clinical sample. Assessment, 23(1), 42–51. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191115575069.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berghuis, H., Ingenhoven, T. J., van der Heijden, P. T., Rossi, G. M., & Schotte, C. K. (2017). Journal of Personality Disorders, 1–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2017_31_329.
- Costa Jr., P. T., & Widiger, T. A. (2012). Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. In P. T. Costa Jr. & T. A. Widiger (Eds.), Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Díaz-Batanero, C., Ramírez-López, J., Domínguez-Salas, S., Fernández-Calderón, F., & Lozano, Ó. M. (2017). Personality inventory for DSM-5–short form (PID-5-SF): Reliability, factorial structure, and relationship with functional impairment in dual diagnosis patients. Assessment, doi: 1073191117739980.Google Scholar
- Doering, S., Renn, D., Hofer, S., Rumpold, G., Smrekar, U., Janecke, N., et al. (2007). Validation of the “assessment of DSM-IV personality disorders (ADP-IV)” questionnaire. Z Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, 53(2), 111–128. https://doi.org/10.13109/zptm.2007.53.2.111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Few, L. R., Miller, J. D., Rothbaum, A. O., Meller, S., Maples, J., Terry, D. P., et al. (2013). Examination of the section III DSM-5 diagnostic system for personality disorders in an outpatient clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(4), 1057. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034878.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Fossati, A., Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Borroni, S., & Maffei, C. (2013). Reliability and validity of the personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) predicting DSM-IV personality disorders and psychopathy in community-dwelling Italian adults. Assessment, 20(6), 689–708. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191113504984.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fox, J. (2000). Nonparametric simple regression: Smoothing scatterplots. (no. 130) sage.Google Scholar
- Gutiérrez-Zotes, J. A., Gutiérrez, F., Valero, J., Gallego, E., Baillés, E., Torres, X., et al. (2008). Structure of personality pathology in normal and clinical samples: Spanish validation of the DAPP-BQ. Journal of Personality Disorders, 22(4), 389–404. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2008.22.4.389.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huchzermeier, C., Geiger, F., Köhler, D., Bruß, E., Godt, N., Hinrichs, G., & Aldenhoff, J. B. (2008). Are there age-related effects in antisocial personality disorders and psychopathy? Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 15(4), 213–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2007.10.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hyler, S. E. (1994). Personality diagnostic questionnaire-4. New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
- Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Feeney, B. C. (2012). A simple guide to IBM SPSS: for version 20.0. Nelson education.Google Scholar
- Livesley, W., & Jackson, D. (2009). Manual for the dimensional assessment of personality pathology—Basic questionnaire. Port Huron, MI: Sigma.Google Scholar
- López-Ibor Aliño, J.J., Pérez Urdaníz, A., Rubio Larrosa, V. & World Health Organization. (1996). Examen internacional de los trastornos de la personalidad.. MEDITOR. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/41913
- Loranger, A. W., Janca, A., & Sartorius, N. (1997). Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorders: The ICD-10 international personality disorder examination (IPDE): Cambridge University press.Google Scholar
- Maples, J. L., Carter, N. T., Few, L. R., Crego, C., Gore, W. L., Samuel, D. B., et al. (2015). Testing whether the DSM-5 personality disorder trait model can be measured with a reduced set of items: An item response theory investigation of the personality inventory for DSM-5. Psychological Assessment, 27(4), 1195. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ones, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. (1996). Bandwidth-fidelity dilemma in personality measurement for personnel selection. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 609–626. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199611)17:6<609::AID-JOB1828>3.0.CO;2-K.
- Schotte, C., De Doncker, D., Vankerckhoven, C., Vertommen, H., & Cosyns, P. (1998). Self-report assessment of the DSM-IV personality disorders. Measurement of trait and distress characteristics: The ADP-IV. Psychological Medicine, 28(5), 1179–1188. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291798007041.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schotte, C. K., Doncker, D. A. D., Dmitruk, D., Mulders, I. V., D'Haenen, H., & Cosyns, P. (2004). The ADP-IV questionnaire: differential validity and concordance with the semi-structured interview. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18(4), 405–419. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.18.4.405.40348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van den Broeck, J., Bastiaansen, L., Rossi, G., Dierckx, E., De Clercq, B., & Hofmans, J. (2014). Hierarchical structure of maladaptive personality traits in older adults: Joint factor analysis of the PID-5 and the DAPP-BQ. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28(2), 198–211. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2013_27_114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zimmermann, J., Altenstein, D., Krieger, T., Holtforth, M. G., Pretsch, J., Alexopoulos, J., et al. (2014). The structure and correlates of self-reported DSM-5 maladaptive personality traits: Findings from two German-speaking samples. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28(4), 518–540. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2014_28_130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar