When and How to use Multiple Informants to Improve Clinical Assessments

  • Lisa A. AlexanderEmail author
  • Patrick E. McKnight
  • David J. Disabato
  • Todd B. Kashdan


Multiple informants - compared to single informants - better inform the clinical assessment and the diagnosis of psychopathology. The Operations Triad Model (OTM; De Los Reyes et al. 2013a) provides researchers with a conceptual framework for integrating information from multiple informants into research settings. We simplified this model by: 1) identifying context and insight as the critical factors necessary for determining if multiple informants improve diagnostic accuracy and 2) providing decision-making heuristics for determining when and how to use multiple informants in clinical research and practice. We focused on how symptoms can vary across situations (i.e., context) and how individuals can lack the awareness to accurately report symptoms (i.e., insight) to improve interpretations of informant discrepancies.


Multiple informants Self-report Discrepancy Adult assessment 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Lisa A. Alexander, Patrick E. McKnight, David J. Disabato, & Todd B. Kashdan declare they have no conflicts of interest.

Experiment Participants

We did not collect data from participants in this study.


No extramural or intramural funding support the authors during the project.

Informed Consent

We did not collect data from participants for the current manuscript. Thus, it was not necessary for us to obtain informed consent.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa A. Alexander
    • 1
    Email author
  • Patrick E. McKnight
    • 1
  • David J. Disabato
    • 1
  • Todd B. Kashdan
    • 1
  1. 1.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

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