Advertisement

When and How to use Multiple Informants to Improve Clinical Assessments

  • Lisa A. AlexanderEmail author
  • Patrick E. McKnight
  • David J. Disabato
  • Todd B. Kashdan
Article

Abstract

Multiple informants - compared to single informants - better inform the clinical assessment and the diagnosis of psychopathology. The Operations Triad Model (OTM; De Los Reyes et al. 2013a) provides researchers with a conceptual framework for integrating information from multiple informants into research settings. We simplified this model by: 1) identifying context and insight as the critical factors necessary for determining if multiple informants improve diagnostic accuracy and 2) providing decision-making heuristics for determining when and how to use multiple informants in clinical research and practice. We focused on how symptoms can vary across situations (i.e., context) and how individuals can lack the awareness to accurately report symptoms (i.e., insight) to improve interpretations of informant discrepancies.

Keywords

Multiple informants Self-report Discrepancy Adult assessment 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Lisa A. Alexander, Patrick E. McKnight, David J. Disabato, & Todd B. Kashdan declare they have no conflicts of interest.

Experiment Participants

We did not collect data from participants in this study.

Funding

No extramural or intramural funding support the authors during the project.

Informed Consent

We did not collect data from participants for the current manuscript. Thus, it was not necessary for us to obtain informed consent.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (2006). As others see us: clinical and research implications of cross-informant correlations for psychopathology. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(2), 94–98. doi: 10.1111/j.0963-7214.2006.00414.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M. (2011). Commentary: Definitely more than measurement error: but how should we understand and deal with informant discrepancies? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(1), 80–86. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2011.533416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M., Krukowski, R. A., Dumenci, L. I., & Masha, Y. (2005). Assessment of adult psychopathology: meta-analyses and implications of cross-informant correlations. Psychological Bulletin, 131(3), 361–382. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.131.3.361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 213-232. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.213.
  5. Addis, M. E. (2008). Gender and depression in men. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 15(3), 153–168. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2850.2008.00125.x.Google Scholar
  6. Addis, M. E., & Cohane, G. H. (2005). Social scientific paradigms of masculinity and their implications for research and practice in men's mental health. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(6), 633–647. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20099.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alonso, P., Menchón, J. M., Segalàs, C., Jaurrieta, N., Jiménez-Murcia, S., Cardoner, N., et al. (2008). Clinical implications of insight assessment in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49(3), 305–312. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2007.09.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Amador, X. F., Flaum, M., Andreasen, N. C., Strauss, D. H., Yale, S. A., Clark, S. C., & Gorman, J. M. (1994). Awareness of illness in schizophrenia and schizoaffective and mood disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(10), 826–836. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950100074007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. American Psychiatric Association [APA]. (2013). The diagnostic and statistical Manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barlow, D. H. (2008). Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment Manual (4th ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  11. Beck, A. T., Baruch, E., Balter, J. M., Steer, R. A., & Warman, D. M. (2004). A new instrument for measuring insight: the Beck cognitive insight scale. Schizophrenia Research, 68(2), 319–329. doi: 10.1016/S0920-9964(03)00189-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II]. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  13. Belendiuk, K. A., Clarke, T. L., Chronis, A. M., & Raggi, V. L. (2007). Assessing the concordance of measures used to diagnose adult ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 10(3), 276–287. doi: 10.1177/1087054706289941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bellack, A. S., Green, M. F., Cook, J. A., Fenton, W., Harvey, P. D., Heaton, R. K., et al. (2007). Assessment of community functioning in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses: a white paper based on an NIMH-sponsored workshop. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33(3), 805–822. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbl035.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bloch, M. H., Angeli Landeros-Weisenberger, M. D., Rosario, M. C., Pittenger, C., & Leckman, J. F. (2008). Meta-analysis of the symptom structure of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(12), 1532–1542. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08020320.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carlson, E. N., Vazire, S., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2011). You probably think this paper's about you: narcissists' perceptions of their personality and reputation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(1), 185. doi: 10.1037/a0023781.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carlson, E. N., Vazire, S., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2013). Self-other knowledge asymmetries in personality pathology. Journal of Personality, 81(2), 155–170. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00794.x.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carpenter, K. M., & Addis, M. E. (2000). Alexithymia, gender, and responses to depressive symptoms. Sex Roles, 43(9), 629–644. doi: 10.1023/A:1007100523844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chambless, D. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (2001). Empirically supported psychological interventions: Controversies and evidence. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 685–716. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1988). Mood and the mundane: Relations between daily life events and self-reported mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(2), 296. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.54.2.296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3), 316–336. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.100.3.316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coles, M. E., Frost, R. O., Heimberg, R. G., & Rhéaume, J. (2003). “not just right experiences”: perfectionism, obsessive–compulsive features and general psychopathology. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41(6), 681–700. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00044-X.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coles, M. E., Heimberg, R. G., Frost, R. O., & Steketee, G. (2005). Not just right experiences and obsessive–compulsive features: experimental and self-monitoring perspectives. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(2), 153–167. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.01.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Connelly, B. S., & Ones, D. S. (2010). An other perspective on personality: meta-analytic integration of observers' accuracy and predictive validity. Psychological Bulletin, 136(6), 1092. doi: 10.1037/a0021212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cooper, L. D., Balsis, S., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2012). Self-and informant-reported perspectives on symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3(2), 140. doi: 10.1037/a0026576.
  26. Couture, S. M., Penn, D. L., & Roberts, D. L. (2006). The functional significance of social cognition in schizophrenia: a review. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, S44–S63. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbl029.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cox, B. J., Pagura, J., Stein, M. B., & Sareen, J. (2009). The relationship between generalized social phobia and avoidant personality disorder in a national mental health survey. Depression and Anxiety, 26(4), 354–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Coyne, J. C. (1976). Depression and the response of others. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85(2), 186–193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.85.2.186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cuijpers, P., van Straten, A., Andersson, G., & van Oppen, P. (2008). Psychotherapy for depression in adults: a meta-analysis of comparative outcomes studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 909–922. doi: 10.1037/a0013075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. David, A. S., Bedford, N., Wiffen, B., & Gilleen, J. (2012). Failures of metacognition and lack of insight in neuropsychiatric disorders. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1594), 1379–1390. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. De Los Reyes, A., Bunnell, B. E., & Beidel, D. C. (2013b). Informant discrepancies in adult social anxiety disorder assessments: links with contextual variations in observed behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122(2), 376–386. doi: 10.1037/a0031150.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De Los Reyes, A., & Kazdin, A. E. (2004). Measuring informant discrepancies in clinical child research. Psychological Assessment, 16(3), 330–334. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.16.3.330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De Los Reyes, A., Goodman, K. L., Kliewer, W., & Reid-Quinones, K. (2010). The longitudinal consistency of mother–child reporting discrepancies of parental monitoring and their ability to predict child delinquent behaviors two years later. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(12), 1417–1430.Google Scholar
  34. De Los Reyes, A., Thomas, S. A., Goodman, K. L., & Kundey, S. M. (2013a). Principles underlying the use of multiple informants' reports. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 123–149. doi: 10.1146/2Fannurev-clinpsy-050212-185617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eikenaes, I., Hummelen, B., Abrahamsen, G., Andrea, H., & Wilberg, T. (2013). Personality functioning in patients with avoidant personality disorder and social phobia. Journal of Personality Disorders, 27(6), 746–763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Finlay, W. M., & Lyons, E. (2001). Methodological issues in interviewing and using self-report questionnaires with people with mental retardation. Psychological Assessment, 13(3), 319. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.13.3.319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fioravanti, M., Carlone, O., Vitale, B., Cinti, M. E., & Clare, L. (2005). A meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Neuropsychology Review, 15(2), 73–95. doi: 10.1007/s11065-005-6254-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fleeson, W. (2001). Toward a structure-and process-integrated view of personality: traits as density distributions of states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(6), 1011. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.80.6.1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Foa, E. B., Franklin, M. E., Perry, K. J., & Herbert, J. D. (1996). Cognitive biases in generalized social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(3), 433.Google Scholar
  40. Galione, J. N., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2013). Identifying personality pathology associated with major depressive episodes: incremental validity of informant-reports. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95(6), 625–632. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2013.825624.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Giesler, R. B., Josephs, R. A., & Swann Jr., W. B. (1996). Self-verification in clinical depression: the desire for negative evaluation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(3), 358. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.105.3.358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gilovich, T., & Savitsky, K. (1999). The spotlight effect and the illusion of transparency: egocentric assessments of how we are seen by others. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8(6), 165–168.Google Scholar
  43. Grucza, R. A., & Goldberg, L. R. (2007). The comparative validity of 11 modern personality inventories: predictions of behavioral acts, informant-reports, and clinical indicators. Journal of Personality Assessment, 89, 167–187. doi: 10.2307/3149759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hunsley, J., & Mash, E. J. (2005). Introduction to the special section on developing guidelines for the evidence-based assessment (EBA) of adult disorders. Psychological Assessment, 17(3), 251–255. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.17.3.251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hutchinson, A. D., & Mathias, J. L. (2007). Neuropsychological deficits in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 78(9), 917–928. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2006.100669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hyler, S. E., Rieder, R. O., Williams, J. B., Spitzer, R. L., Lyons, M., & Hendler, J. (1989). A comparison of clinical and self-report diagnoses of DSM-III personality disorders in 552 patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 30, 170–178. doi: 10.1016/0010-440X(89)90070-9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jones, S., & Miller, J. D. (2012). Psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors: a comparison of self-and informant-reports in the statistical prediction of externalizing behaviors. Psychological Assessment, 24(1), 255. doi: 10.1037/a0025264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jorm, A. F. (1996). Assessment of cognitive impairments and dementia using informant-reports. Clinical Psychology Review, 16(1), 51–73. doi: 10.1016/0272-7358(95)00056-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Klonsky, D. E., Oltmanns, T. F., & Turkheimer, E. (2002). Informant-reports of personality disorder: relation to self-reports and future directions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(3), 300–311. doi: 10.1093/clipsy.9.3.300.Google Scholar
  50. Kraemer, H. C., Measelle, J. R., Ablow, J. C., Essex, M. J., Boyce, W. T., & Kupfer, D. J. (2003). A new approach to integrating data from multiple informants in psychiatric assessment and research: mixing and matching contexts and perspectives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(9), 1566–1577. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.9.1566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kwang, T., & Swann, W. B. (2010). Do people embrace praise even when they feel unworthy? A review of critical tests of self-enhancement versus self-verification. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(3), 263–280. doi: 10.1177/1088868310365876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leckman, J. F., Grice, D. E., Boardman, J., Zhang, H., Vitale, A., Bondi, C., et al. (1997). Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154(7), 911–917.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lieberman, L., Liu, H., Huggins, A. A., Katz, A. C., Zvolensky, M. J., & Shankman, S. A. (2016). Comparing the validity of informant and self-reports of personality using laboratory indices of emotional responding as criterion variables. Psychophysiology. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12680.
  54. Lukowitsky, M. R., & Pincus, A. L. (2013). Interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism: a social relations analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95(3), 261–273. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2013.765881.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mangone, C. A., Hier, D. B., Gorelick, P. B., Ganellen, R. J., Langenberg, P., Boarman, R., & Dollear, W. C. (1991). Impaired insight in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 4(4), 189–193. doi: 10.1177/089198879100400402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. McKnight, P. E., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). The importance of functional impairment to mental health outcomes: a case for reassessing our goals in depression treatment research. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 243–259. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.01.005.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McKnight, P. E., Monfort, S. S., Kashdan, T. B., Blalock, D. V., & Calton, J. M. (2015). Anxiety symptoms and functional impairment: a systematic review of the correlation between the two measures. Clinical Psychology Review, 45, 115–130. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.10.005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Meehl, P. E. (1954). Clinical versus statistical prediction: A theoretical analysis and a review of the evidence. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Meehl, P. E. (1956). Wanted—A good cook-book. American Psychologist, 11(6), 263–272. doi: 10.1037/h0044164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Metzler-Baddeley, C. (2007). A review of cognitive impairments in dementia with Lewy bodies relative to Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease with dementia. Cortex, 43(5), 583–600. doi: 10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70489-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mischel, W. (1968). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (1998). Reconciling processing dynamics and personality dispositions. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 229–258. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mischel, W., Mendoza-Denton, R., & Shoda, Y. (2002). Situation-behavior contingencies as a locus of consistency in personality. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(2), 50–54. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mullen, R., Howard, R., David, A., & Levy, R. (1996). Insight in Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11(7), 645–651. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(199607)11:7<645::AID-GPS366>3.0.CO;2-P.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Plassman, B. L., Langa, K. M., Fisher, G. G., Heeringa, S. G., Weir, D. R., Ofstedal, M. B., et al. (2007). Prevalence of dementia in the United States: the aging, demographics, and memory study. Neuroepidemiology, 29(1–2), 125–132. doi: 10.1159/000109998.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Poulsen, S., Lunn, S., Daniel, S. I. F., Folke, S., Mathieson, B. B., Katznelson, H., & Fairburn, C. G. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of psychoanalytic psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa. American Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 109–116. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12121511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Quee, P. J., van der Meer, L., Bruggeman, R., de Haan, L., Krabbendam, L., Cahn, W., et al. (2010). Insight in psychosis: relationship with neurocognition, social cognition and clinical symptoms depends on phase of illness. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 133, 1–9. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbq133.Google Scholar
  68. Ray, J. V., Hall, J., Rivera-Hudson, N., Poythress, N. G., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Morano, M. (2013). The relation between self-reported psychopathic traits and distorted response styles: a meta-analytic review. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 4(1), 1. doi: 10.1037/a0026482.
  69. Rottenberg, J., Gross, J. J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2005). Emotion context insensitivity in major depressive disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(4), 627. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.114.4.627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rottenberg, J. E., & Johnson, S. L. (2007). Emotion and psychopathology: Bridging affective and clinical science. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  71. Samuel, D. B. (2015). A review of the agreement between clinicians’ personality disorder diagnoses and those from other methods and sources. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 22(1), 1–19. doi: 10.1111/cpsp.12088.Google Scholar
  72. Samuel, D. B., Sanislow, C. A., Hopwood, C. J., Shea, M. T., Skodol, A. E., Morey, L. C., et al. (2013). Convergent and incremental predictive validity of clinician, self-report, and structured interview diagnoses for personality disorders over 5 years. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(4), 650–659. doi: 10.1037/a0032813.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shoda, Y., Mischel, W., & Wright, J. C. (1994). Intraindividual stability in the organization and patterning of behavior: incorporating psychological situations into the idiographic analysis of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(4), 674. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.67.4.674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shoda, Y., Wilson, N. L., Chen, J., Gilmore, A. K., & Smith, R. E. (2013). Cognitive-affective processing system analysis of intra-individual dynamics in collaborative therapeutic assessment: translating basic theory and research into clinical applications. Journal of Personality, 81(6), 554–568. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith, S. R. (2007). Making sense of multiple informants in child and adolescent psychopathology: a guide for clinicians. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 25, 139–149. doi: 10.1177/0734282906296233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Swann, W. B., Wenzlaff, R. M., & Tafarodi, R. W. (1992). Depression and the search for negative evaluations: more evidence of the role of self-verification strivings. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101(2), 314–317. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.101.2.314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Steketee, G. S. (1993). Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  78. Uher, R., Perlis, R. H., Placentino, A., Dernovšek, M. Z., Henigsberg, N., Mors, O., et al. (2012). Self-report and clinician-rated measures of depression severity: can one replace the other? Depression and Anxiety, 29(12), 1043–1049. doi: 10.1002/da.21993.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vazire, S., & Carlson, E. N. (2011). Others sometimes know us better than we know ourselves. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(2), 104–108. doi: 10.1177/0963721411402478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Watts, A. L., Lilienfeld, S. O., Edens, J. F., Douglas, K. S., Skeem, J. L., Verschuere, B., & LoPilato, A. C. (2016). Does response distortion statistically affect the relations between self-report psychopathy measures and external criteria? Psychological Assessment, 28(3), 294. doi: 10.1037/pas0000168.supp.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zametkin, A. J., & Ernst, M. (1999). Problems in the management of attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder. New England Journal of Medicine, 340(1), 40–46. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199901073400107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa A. Alexander
    • 1
    Email author
  • Patrick E. McKnight
    • 1
  • David J. Disabato
    • 1
  • Todd B. Kashdan
    • 1
  1. 1.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

Personalised recommendations