Validation of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory and Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory – Short Version Among Incarcerated Juvenile Delinquents

  • Pedro Pechorro
  • Henrik Andershed
  • James V. Ray
  • João Maroco
  • Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves


The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) and of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory – Short version (YPI-S) among Portuguese juvenile delinquents within a forensic sample of 221 incarcerated males (ages 13–20 years). Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the three-factor structure of the YPI and YPI-S, and the reliability of both instruments was good for the majority of subscales and factors. The YPI and YPI-S and their subscales showed good criterion, external, and divergent validity. That is, positive associations were found with a number of external criteria including Conduct Disorder, crime seriousness, and violent crimes. Total and subscale scores on both YPI versions were positively related to the Antisocial Process Screening Device, the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits, and the Child and Adolescent Taxon Scale. Finally, both the YPI and YPI-S were mostly unrelated to the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. Overall, the YPI-S presented less problems with reliability, but weaker relations to external correlates. These findings justify the use of the YPI and the YPI-S among incarcerated youths.


Assessment Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory - Short version (YPI-S) Juvenile delinquency Validation 



This research was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) with co-financing of the European Social Fund - POPH/FSE (Grant SFRH/BPD/86666/2012).

We wish to thank the following Portuguese juvenile detention centers for their collaboration: Bela Vista, Mondego, Navarro de Paiva, Olivais, Padre António Oliveira, Santo António, Santa Clara, Prisão-Escola de Leiria.

Conflict of Interest

Pedro Pechorro, Henrik Andershed, James V. Ray, João Maroco, and Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Experiment Participants

Informed Consent were followed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Pechorro
    • 1
  • Henrik Andershed
    • 2
  • James V. Ray
    • 3
  • João Maroco
    • 4
  • Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.School of Law, Psychology and Social WorkÖrebro UniversityÖrebroSweden
  3. 3.Department of Criminal JusticeUniversity of Texas at San AntonioSan AntonioUSA
  4. 4.ISPA – Instituto UniversitárioLisbonPortugal

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