How Other-Oriented Perfectionism Differs from Self-Oriented and Socially Prescribed Perfectionism: Further Findings

Article

Abstract

Investigating how other-oriented perfectionism (OOP) differed from self-oriented perfectionism (SOP) and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP), Stoeber (Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36, 329–338, 2014a) found OOP to show unique positive relationships with the Dark Triad personality traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) and unique negative relationships with nurturance, intimacy, and social development goals. Aiming to expand on Stoeber’s findings, the present study examined 229 university students investigating the unique relationships of the three forms of perfectionism with humor styles, callous-unemotional-uncaring traits, social value orientations, self- and other-interest, and positive self-evaluations (positive self-regard, feeling superior to others). When multiple regressions were conducted controlling for the overlap between the three forms of perfectionism, OOP showed unique positive relationships with aggressive humor, uncaring traits, an individualistic orientation, and positive self-regard and unique negative relationships with a prosocial orientation and other-interest. In contrast, SOP showed unique positive relationships with affiliative humor and other-interest and unique negative relationships with aggressive humor, callous-uncaring traits, and a competitive orientation whereas SPP showed unique positive relationships with self-depreciating humor and unemotional traits and unique negative relationships with both forms of positive self-evaluations. The findings provide further evidence that OOP is a “dark” form of perfectionism positively associated with narcissistic, antisocial, and uncaring personality characteristics.

Keywords

Perfectionism Humor styles Callous-unemotional-uncaring traits Social value orientations Self- and other-interest Positive self-evaluations 

References

  1. Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2007). Empirical, theoretical, and practical advantages of the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 150–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Besser, A., Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2010). Perfectionistic self-presentation and trait perfectionism in social problem-solving ability and depressive symptoms. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 2121–2154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blankstein, K. R., & Winkworth, G. R. (2004). Dimensions of perfectionism and levels of attributions for grades: relations with dysphoria and academic performance. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 22, 267–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. British Psychological Society. (2009). Code of ethics and conduct. London: Author.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, R. P., Budzek, K., & Tamborski, M. (2009). On the meaning and measure of narcissism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 951–964.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Childs, J. H., & Stoeber, J. (2010). Self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism in employees: relationships with burnout and engagement. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 25, 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Craik, K. H., Lampert, M. D., & Nelson, A. J. (1996). Sense of humor and styles of everyday humorous conduct. Humor, 9, 273–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Cuyper, K., Claes, L., Hermans, D., Pieters, G., Smits, D. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale of Hewitt in a Dutch-speaking sample: Associations with the Big Five personality traits. Journal of Personality Assessment.Google Scholar
  10. Deevybee. (2012, December 15). Psychology: where are all the men? [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://deevybee.blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/psychology-where-are-all-men.html.
  11. Essau, C. A., Sasagawa, S., & Frick, P. J. (2006). Callous-unemotional traits in a community sample of adolescents. Assessment, 13, 454–469.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fanti, K. A., Frick, P. J., & Georgiou, S. (2009). Linking callous-unemotional traits to instrumental and non-instrumental forms of aggression. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31, 285–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., Blankstein, K., & O’Brien, S. (1991). Perfectionism and learned resourcefulness in depression and self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 61–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Flett, G. L., Russo, F. A., & Hewitt, P. L. (1994). Dimensions of perfectionism and constructive thinking as a coping response. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 12, 163–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Freud, S. (1928). Humour. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 9, 1–6.Google Scholar
  16. Frick, P. J. (2003). The Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  17. Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gerbasi, M. E., & Prentice, D. A. (2013). The Self- and Other-Interest Inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 495–514.Google Scholar
  19. Habke, A. M., & Flynn, C. A. (2002). Interpersonal aspects of trait perfectionism. In G. L. Flett & P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism (pp. 151–180). Washington: APA.Google Scholar
  20. Haring, M., Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (2003). Perfectionism, coping, and quality of intimate relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65, 143–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1990). Perfectionism and depression: a multidimensional analysis. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5, 423–438.Google Scholar
  22. Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456–470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (2004). Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS): Technical manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  24. Hewitt, P. L., Flett, G. L., & Mikail, S. F. (1995). Perfectionism and relationship adjustment in pain patients and their spouses. Journal of Family Psychology, 9, 335–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hilbig, B. E., & Zettler, I. (2009). Pillars of cooperation: honesty-humility, social value orientations, and economic behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 516–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hill, A. P., Stoeber, J., Brown, A., & Appleton, P. R. (2014). Team perfectionism and team performance: a prospective study. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 36, 303–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Klibert, J. J., Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., & Saito, M. (2005). Adaptive and maladaptive aspects of self-oriented versus socially prescribed perfectionism. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee, K., & Ashton, M. C. (2006). Further assessment of the HEXACO personality inventory: two new facet scales and an observer report form. Psychological Assessment, 18, 182–191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Leising, D., Borkenau, P., Zimmermann, J., Roski, C., Leonhardt, A., & Schütz, A. (2013). Positive self-regard and claim to leadership: two fundamental forms of self-evaluation. European Journal of Personality, 27, 565–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Martin, R. A. (2003). Sense of humor. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures (pp. 313–326). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Martin, R. A., Puhlik-Doris, P., Larsen, G., Gray, J., & Weir, K. (2003). Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being: development of the Humor Styles Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 48–75.Google Scholar
  32. Miller, J. L., & Vaillancourt, T. (2007). Relation between childhood peer victimization and adult perfectionism: are victims of indirect aggression more perfectionistic? Aggressive Behavior, 33, 230–241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Nealis, L. J., Sherry, S. B., Macneil, M. A., Stewart, S. H., & Sherry, D. L. (2013). Narcissistic perfectionism and interpersonal conflict: Evidence from a 28-day diary study. Poster presented at the 14th annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, New Orleans, LAGoogle Scholar
  34. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  35. Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2002). The dark triad of personality: narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 556–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Peterson, R. A. (2001). On the use of college students in social science research: insights from a second-order meta-analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 28, 450–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pincus, A. L., & Roche, M. J. (2011). Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability. In W. K. Campbell & J. D. Miller (Eds.), The handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (pp. 31–40). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Razali, N. M., & Wah, Y. B. (2011). Power comparisons of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Lilliefors and Anderson-Darling tests. Journal of Statistical Modeling and Analytics, 2, 21–33.Google Scholar
  39. Rice, K. G., Ashby, J. S., & Slaney, R. B. (2007). Perfectionism and the five-factor model of personality. Assessment, 14, 385–398.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Roose, A., Bijttebier, P., Decoene, S., Claes, L., & Frick, P. J. (2010). Assessing the affective features of psychopathy in adolescence: a further validation of the inventory of callous and unemotional traits. Assessment, 17, 44–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Rudolph, S. G., Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2007). Perfectionism and deficits in cognitive emotion regulation. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 25, 343–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sherry, S. B., Gralnick, T. M., Hewitt, P. L., Sherry, D. L., & Flett, G. L. (2014). Perfectionism and narcissism: testing unique relationships and gender differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 61–62, 52–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shim, S. S., & Fletcher, K. L. (2012). Perfectionism and social goals: what do perfectionists want to achieve in social situations? Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 919–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shoss, M. K., Callison, K., & Witt, L. A. (2015). The effects of other-oriented perfectionism and conscientiousness on helping at work. Applied Psychology, 64, 233–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Slaney, R. B., Rice, K. G., Mobley, M., Trippi, J., & Ashby, J. S. (2001). The revised almost perfect scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, 130–145.Google Scholar
  47. Stoeber, J. (2012). Dyadic perfectionism in romantic relationships: predicting relationship satisfaction and longterm commitment. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 300–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stoeber, J. (2014a). How other-oriented perfectionism differs from self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 36, 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stoeber, J. (2014b). Multidimensional perfectionism and the DSM-5 personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 115–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stoeber, J., & Hotham, S. (2013). Perfectionism and social desirability: students report increased perfectionism to create a positive impression. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 626–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stoeber, J., Otto, K., & Dalbert, C. (2009). Perfectionism and the big five: conscientiousness predicts longitudinal increases in self-oriented perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 363–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stoeber, J., Davis, C. R., & Townley, J. (2013a). Perfectionism and workaholism in employees: the role of work motivation. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 733–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stoeber, J., Harvey, L. N., Almeida, I., & Lyons, E. (2013b). Multidimensional sexual perfectionism. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42, 1593–1604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
  55. Tzelgov, J., & Henik, A. (1991). Suppression situations in psychological research: definitions, implications, and applications. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 524–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. van Dijk, E., De Cremer, D., & Handgraaf, M. J. J. (2004). Social value orientations and the strategic use of fairness in ultimatum bargaining. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 697–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Van Lange, P. A. M., De Bruin, E. M. N., Otten, W., & Joireman, J. A. (1997). Development of prosocial, individualistic, and competitive orientations: theory and preliminary evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 733–746.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Veselka, L., Schermer, J. A., Martin, R. A., & Vernon, P. A. (2010). Relations between humor styles and the Dark Triad traits of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 772–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yip, J. A., & Martin, R. A. (2006). Sense of humor, emotional intelligence, and social competence. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 1202–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of KentCanterburyUK

Personalised recommendations