Hope as a Moderator of the Associations Between Common Risk Factors and Frequency of Substance Use Among Latino Adolescents

  • Paula J. FiteEmail author
  • Joy Gabrielli
  • John L. Cooley
  • Sarah M. Haas
  • Andrew Frazer
  • Sonia L. Rubens
  • Michelle Johnson-Motoyama


Ample research suggests that delinquency, depressive symptoms, and peer substance use are common risk factors associated with adolescent substance use. However, the factors that may help to buffer the deleterious effects of these risk factors on adolescent substance use, such as hope, have yet to be examined. The current study evaluated hope as a moderator of the associations between these common risk factors and frequency of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) in a sample of Latino high school students (M age  = 16.14 years, SD = 1.30; 55 % female). Findings indicated that the influence of delinquency on frequency of tobacco and marijuana use depended on levels of hope, with delinquency only positively associated with frequency of use when levels of hope were low. Additionally, hope moderated the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol use, such that depressive symptoms were only positively associated with frequency of alcohol use when levels of hope were low. Results and their implications for intervention are reviewed.


Adolescent substance use Hope Depressive symptoms Delinquency Peer use 



The writing of this manuscript was supported in part by a NIDA fellowship grant (F31 DA034423) awarded to the second author and a NIMH fellowship grant (F31 MH098494) awarded to the fourth author.

Conflict of Interest

Paula J. Fite declares no conflict of interest; Joy Gabrielli declares no conflict of interest; John L. Cooley declares no conflict of interest; Sarah M. Haas declares no conflict of interest; Andrew Frazer declares no conflict of interest; Sonia L. Rubens declares no conflict of interest; Michelle Johnson-Motoyama declares no conflict of interest.

Experiment Participants

All study procedures were approved by the institutional review board, and written consent was obtained for all study participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paula J. Fite
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Joy Gabrielli
    • 1
  • John L. Cooley
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sarah M. Haas
    • 3
  • Andrew Frazer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sonia L. Rubens
    • 1
  • Michelle Johnson-Motoyama
    • 4
  1. 1.Clinical Child Psychology ProgramUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA
  2. 2.Consortium for Translational Research on Aggression and Drug Abuse (ConTRADA)LawrenceUSA
  3. 3.State University of New York at BuffaloBuffaloUSA
  4. 4.School of Social WelfareUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

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