The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) in Transitional Post-War Croatia: Psychometric and Cultural Considerations

  • Nenad Jakšić
  • Goran Milas
  • Ena Ivezić
  • Anja Wertag
  • Nataša Jokić-Begić
  • Aaron L. Pincus


The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed measure for assessing grandiose and vulnerable themes of narcissistic pathology. The aim of this study was to validate the PNI in the transitional post-war Croatian society by examining its psychometric properties and factor structure in a sample of Croatian university students (N = 651). The participants filled out several self-report measures of narcissism, as well as measures of trait emotional stability and negative emotional states. Findings of this study supported the existence of seven first-order and two second-order factors of the PNI, invariant across genders. Additionally, all the subscales had good reliability coefficients, while the associations with other measures supported the concurrent validity of the instrument. These findings support the use of the PNI in a transitional post-war society and emphasize certain aspects of cross-cultural stability of pathological narcissism, although some cross-cultural variants should be considered when applying this measure in different cultural settings.


PNI Pathological narcissism Psychometric properties Factor structure Culture Croatia 


Conflict of Interest

None to declare.

Experiment Participants

All the participants provided informed consent. The approval of an institutional review board was obtained for all aspects of the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nenad Jakšić
    • 1
  • Goran Milas
    • 2
  • Ena Ivezić
    • 3
  • Anja Wertag
    • 2
  • Nataša Jokić-Begić
    • 4
  • Aaron L. Pincus
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity Hospital Center ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Institute of Social Sciences “Ivo Pilar”ZagrebCroatia
  3. 3.Psychiatric Hospital “Sveti Ivan”ZagrebCroatia
  4. 4.Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social SciencesUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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