Brooding and Reflection as Subtypes of Rumination: Evidence from Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Nonclinical Samples using the Dutch Ruminative Response Scale



Previous research has shown that depressive rumination is an important vulnerability factor for experiencing depressive symptoms. The most widely used measure to assess depressive rumination is the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS). According to Treynor et al. (Cognitive Therapy and Research 27:247–259, 2003), the RRS contains two subscales, reflecting two different rumination subcomponents: brooding and reflection. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the RRS in two samples (N = 432 and N = 407). Based on a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), results confirmed that a two-dimensional model with brooding and reflection factors provided an adequate fit to the data. Reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the rumination subcomponents were appropriate. Furthermore, brooding but not reflection predicted depressive symptoms prospectively, even when accounting for concurrent depressive feelings. The results provide the first confirmatory factor-analytical support for the widely assumed two-factor model of the RRS and add to the accumulating body of evidence supporting the multidimensional nature of depressive rumination.


Brooding Psychometric properties Reflection Rumination Self-report questionnaire 



This research was supported by a Research Programme of the Research Foundation—Flanders (FWO) (G.0339.08).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Centre for the Psychology of Learning and Experimental PsychopathologyUniversity of LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

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