The Expanded Version of the Inferential Confusion Questionnaire: Further Development and Validation in Clinical and Non-Clinical Samples

  • Frederick Aardema
  • Kevin D. Wu
  • Yves Careau
  • Kieron O’Connor
  • Dominic Julien
  • Susan Dennie


The current study represents the further development and validation of an expanded version of the Inferential Confusion Questionnaire (ICQ-EV) in non-clinical and clinical samples. Inferential confusion seems to be particularly relevant to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and is defined as a failure to recognize the unrealistic nature of obsessions due to a subjective form of reasoning. Factor analysis of the item-set of the ICQ-EV indicated a one-dimensional solution in non-clinical and clinical samples. It was hypothesized that inferential confusion as measured by the ICQ-EV would be particularly relevant to participants with OCD. Results confirmed convergent validity with strong relationships between the ICQ-EV and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in all samples independent of other cognitive domains and general distress. In addition, those with OCD scored higher on the ICQ-EV than non-clinical controls and a mixed anxiety disorder group so confirming group-criterion validity. Finally, the ICQ-EV also showed clinical validity with change in ICQ-EV scores during treatment significantly related to successful treatment outcome.


Obsessive-compulsive disorder Inferential confusion Cognition Treatment outcome Questionnaires 



The study was supported with a Fellowship Award from the Fond the la Recherche en Santé Quebec (FRSQ) and Grant No. MOP67059 from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick Aardema
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Kevin D. Wu
    • 3
  • Yves Careau
    • 4
  • Kieron O’Connor
    • 1
    • 5
  • Dominic Julien
    • 1
  • Susan Dennie
    • 4
  1. 1.Fernand Seguin Research CenterMontréalCanada
  2. 2.Concordia UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Northern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA
  4. 4.Clinique des Troubles Anxieux, Département de psychologieUIMH Robert-GiffardQuebec CityCanada
  5. 5.University of MontrealMontrealCanada

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