Validation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) in a Community Sample with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

  • Jonathan W. Kanter
  • Laura C. Rusch
  • Andrew M. Busch
  • Sonya K. Sedivy


The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was previously developed to measure changes in avoidance and activation over the course of Behavioral Activation for depression. Initial scale development, definition of the factor structure and confirmation of the factor structure was performed with a non-depressed undergraduate sample. These prior results revealed four factors (Activation, Avoidance/Rumination, Work/School Impairment, and Social Impairment) with good factor structure, internal consistency, and test–retest reliability. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties, factor structure and construct validity of the BADS with a community sample with elevated depressive symptoms (N = 193). Results indicated good psychometric properties, additional evidence for construct validity of the total scale and subscales, and adequate fit of the data to the original factor structure. Normative data are also provided separately for depressed men and women, and for Caucasians and African Americans.


Behavioral activation Depression Scale development Psychotherapy Measurement 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan W. Kanter
    • 1
  • Laura C. Rusch
    • 1
  • Andrew M. Busch
    • 1
  • Sonya K. Sedivy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA

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