Advertisement

Social Anxiety, Emotional Intelligence, and Interpersonal Adjustment

  • Laura J. Summerfeldt
  • Patricia H. Kloosterman
  • Martin M. Antony
  • James D. A. Parker
Article

Abstract

There has been no published investigation made of the relationship between social anxiety and emotional intelligence (EI), or of their shared impact upon interpersonal adjustment. This study examined these questions using structural equation modeling with self-report data from a large nonclinical sample (N = 2629). EI was found to be highly related to social interaction anxiety, but not performance anxiety. A model permitting these three predictors to inter-correlate indicated that the EI factor was the dominant predictor of interpersonal adjustment, substantially reducing the unique contribution made by interaction anxiety. This pattern reflected the principal contributions made to interaction anxiety by the interpersonal and, particularly, intrapersonal domains of EI.

Key words

social anxiety emotional intelligence adjustment 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amir, N., Foa, T. B., & Coles, M. E. (1998). Negative interpretation bias in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 945–957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Austin, B. A. (1983). Factorial structure of the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Psychological Reports, 53, 883–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandalos, D. L. (2002). The effects of item parceling on goodness-of-fit and parameter estimate bias in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 78–102MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. Bar-On, R. (1997). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical manual. Toronto, Canada: MultiHealth Systems Inc.Google Scholar
  6. Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 363–388). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  7. Bar-On, R. (2002). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short version: Technical manual. Toronto, Canada: MultiHealth Systems Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T., Emery, G., & Greenberg, R. (1985). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  9. Bentler, P. M., & Bonnet, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Fit indexes, Lagrange multipliers, constraint changes and incomplete data in structural models. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 163–172.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, E. J., Turovsky, J., Heimberg, R. G., Juster, H. R., Brown, T. A., & Barlow, D. H. (1997). Validation of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale across the anxiety disorders. Psychological Assessment, 9, 21–27.Google Scholar
  12. Byrne, B. M., Shavelson, R. J., & Muthén, B. (1989). Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: The issue of partial measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 456–466.Google Scholar
  13. Ciarrochi, J. V., Chan, A. Y., & Caputi, P. (2000). A critical evaluation of the emotional intelligence construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 539–561.Google Scholar
  14. Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. G. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Cole, D. A. (1987). Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 584–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cramer, K. M., & Barry, J. E. (1999). Conceptualizations and measures of loneliness: A comparison of subscales. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 491–502.Google Scholar
  17. Creed, A. T., & Funder, D. C. (1998). Social anxiety: From the inside and outside. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 19–33.Google Scholar
  18. Dawda, D., & Hart, S. D. (2000). Assessing emotional intelligence: Reliability and validity of the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) in university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 797–812.Google Scholar
  19. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction With Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.Google Scholar
  20. Edelmann, S. J., & Baker, S. R. (2002). Self-reported and actual physiological responses in social phobia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Furnham, A., & Petrides, K. V. (2003). Trait emotional intelligence and happiness. Social Behavior & Personality, 31, 815–824.Google Scholar
  22. Fydrich, T., Chambless, D. L., Perry, K. J., Buergener, F., & Beazley, M. B. (1998). Behavioral assessment of social performance: A rating system for social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 995–1010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gardner, H. (1983/1993). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  24. Hall, R. J., Snell, A. F., & Foust, M. S. (1999). Item parceling strategies in SEM: Investigating the subtle effects of unmodeled secondary constructs. Organizational Research Methods, 2, 233–256.Google Scholar
  25. Heimberg, R. G. (1996). Social phobia, avoidant personality disorder, and the multiaxial conceptualization of interpersonal anxiety. In P. Salkovskis (Ed.), Trends in cognitive and behavioural therapies (Vol. 1, pp. 43–62). Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Heimberg, R. G., Mueller, G. P., Holt, C. S., Hope, D. A., & Liebowitz, M. R. (1992). Assessment of anxiety in social interaction and being observed by others: The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale. Behavior Therapy, 23, 53–73.Google Scholar
  27. Hofmann, S. G. (2000). Treatment of social phobia: Potential mediators and moderators. Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice, 7, 3–16.Google Scholar
  28. Holt, C. S., Heimberg, R. G., & Hope, D. A. (1992). Avoidant personality disorder and the generalized subtype of social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 318–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Horley, K., Williams, L. M., Gonsalvez, C., & Gordon, E. (2003). Social phobics do not see eye to eye: A visual scanpath study of emotional expression processing. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 33–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.Google Scholar
  31. Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2000). The origins of social phobia. Behavour Modification, 24, 102–129.Google Scholar
  32. Jones, W. H., & Carpenter, B. N. (1986). Shyness, social behavior, and relationships. In A. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 227–238). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  33. Kafetsios, K. (2004). Attachment and emotional intelligence abilities across the life course. Personality & Individual Differences, 37, 129–145.Google Scholar
  34. Kishton, J. M., & Widaman, K. F. (1994). Unidimensional versus domain representative parceling of questionnaire items: An empirical example. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 757–765.Google Scholar
  35. Leary, M. (1983). A brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 371–375.Google Scholar
  36. Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1995). Social anxiety. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  37. Liebowitz, M. R. (1987). Social phobia. Modern Problems in Pharmacopsychiatry, 22, 141–173.Google Scholar
  38. Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., & Straus, R. (2003). Emotional intelligence, personality, and the perceived quality of social relationships. Personality & Individual Differences, 35, 641–658.Google Scholar
  39. Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 71, 616–628.Google Scholar
  40. Mansell, W., Clark, D. M., Ehlers, A., & Chen, Y. (1999). Social anxiety and attention away from emotional faces. Cognition & Emotion, 13, 673–690.Google Scholar
  41. Marsh, H. W., Balla, J. R., & McDonald, R. P. (1988). Goodness-of-fit indexes in confirmatory factor analysis: The effects of sample size. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 305–312.Google Scholar
  42. Martinez-Pons, M. (1997). The relation of emotional intelligence with selected areas of personal functioning. Imagination, Cognition & Personality, 17, 3–13.Google Scholar
  43. Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (2000). Selecting a measure of emotional intelligence. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 320–342). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  45. Mayer, J. D., DiPaolo, M., & Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 772–781.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence (pp. 396–420). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Mehrabian, A. (2000). Beyond IQ: Broad-based measurement of individual success potential or “emotional intelligence”. Genetic, Social, & General Psychology Monographs, 126, 133–239.Google Scholar
  48. Montgomery, R. L., Haemmerlie, F. M., & Edwards, M. (1991). Social, personal, and interpersonal deficits in socially anxious people. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 6, 859–872.Google Scholar
  49. Norton, G. R., McLeod, L., Guertin, J., Hewitt, P. L., Walker, J. R., & Stein, M. B. (1996). Panic disorder or social phobia: Which is worse? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 273–276.Google Scholar
  50. Olivares, J., Garcia-Lopez, L. J., Hidalgo, M. D., La Greca, A. M., Turner, S. M., & Beidel, D. C. (2002). A pilot study on normative data for two social anxiety measures: The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. International Journal of Clinical & Health Psychology, 2, 467–476.Google Scholar
  51. Palmer, B., Donaldson, C., & Stough, C. (2002). Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Personality & Individual Differences, 33, 1091–1100.Google Scholar
  52. Parker, J. D. A., Taylor, G., & Bagby, R. M. (2001). The relationship between emotional intelligence and alexithymia. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 107–115.Google Scholar
  53. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Peters, L. (2000). Discriminant validity of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI), the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Behaviour Research & Therapy, 38, 943–950.Google Scholar
  55. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). Gender differences in measured and self-estimated trait emotional intelligence. Sex Roles, 42, 449–461.Google Scholar
  56. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2001). Trait emotional intelligence: Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. European Journal of Personality, 15, 425–448.Google Scholar
  57. Pozo, C., Carver, C. S., Wellens, A. R., & Scheier, M. F. (1991). Social anxiety and social perception: Construing others’ reactions to the self. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 355–362.Google Scholar
  58. Prisbell, M. (1997). Dating, social avoidance, and distress. Psychological Reports, 81, 463–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Rapee, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 741–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Rapee, R. M., & Lim, L. (1992). Discrepancy between self and observer ratings of performance in social phobics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 727–731.Google Scholar
  61. Roth, D., Antony, M. M., & Swinson, R. P. (2001). Interpretations for anxiety symptoms in social phobia. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 39, 129–138.Google Scholar
  62. Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Cutrona, C. E. (1980). The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 472–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Saarni, C. (1999). The development of emotional competence. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  64. Saarni, C. (2000). Emotional competence: A developmental perspective. In R. Bar-On & J. D.A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence (pp. 68–91). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  65. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185–211.Google Scholar
  66. Schmidt, L., & Fox, N. A. (1995). Individual differences in young adults’ shyness and sociability: Personality and health correlates. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 455–462.Google Scholar
  67. Schneier, F. R., Heckelman, L. R., Garfinkell, R., Campeas, R., Fallon, B. A., Gitow, A., et al. (1994). Functional impairment in social phobia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 322–331.Google Scholar
  68. Schroeder, J. E., & Ketrow, S. M. (1997). Social anxiety and performance in an interpersonal perception task. Psychological Reports, 81, 991–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Simunek, M., McKenley, J., & Hollander, S. (2002). Characteristic emotional intelligence and emotional well-being. Cognition & Emotion, 16, 769–785.Google Scholar
  70. Segrin, C. (1999). Social skills, stressful life events, and the development of psychosocial problems. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18, 14–34.Google Scholar
  71. Sifneos, P. E. (1973). The prevalence of alexithymic characteristics in psychosomatic patients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 22, 255–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Steiger, J. H. (1989). EZPATH: A supplementary module for SYSTAT and SYGRAPH. (Evanston, IL: SYSTAT).Google Scholar
  73. Sternberg, R. J., & Smith, C. (1985). Social intelligence and decoding skills in nonverbal communication. Social Cognition, 3, 168–192.Google Scholar
  74. Stemberger, R. T., Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., & Calhoun, K. S. (1995). Social phobia: An analysis of possible developmental factors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 526–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Stopa, L., & Clark, D. M. (2000). Social phobia and the interpretation of social events. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 273–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Stravynski, A., & Amado, D. (2001). Social phobia as a deficit in social skills. In S. G. Hofmann & P. M. DiBartolo (Eds.), From social anxiety to social phobia: Multiple perspectives (pp. 107–129). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  77. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  78. Tanaka, J. S. (1993). Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structural equation models. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 10–39). Newbury Park: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  79. Thorndike, R. L., & Stein, S. (1937). An evaluation of the attempts to measure social intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 275–284.Google Scholar
  80. Turk, C. L., Heimberg, R. G., & Hope, D. A. (2001). Social anxiety disorder. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual (3rd ed.). (pp. 114–153). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  81. Vertue, F. M. (2003). From adaptive emotion to dysfunction: An attachment perspective on social anxiety disorder. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 7, 170–191.Google Scholar
  82. Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: A practice manual and conceptual guide. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  83. Wells, A., & Papageorgiou, C. (2001). Social phobic interoception: Effects of bodily information on anxiety, beliefs and self-processing. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 39, 1–11.Google Scholar
  84. Westenberg, H. (1998). The nature of social anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 20–26.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura J. Summerfeldt
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Patricia H. Kloosterman
    • 1
  • Martin M. Antony
    • 2
  • James D. A. Parker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTrent UniversityPeterboroughCanada
  2. 2.Anxiety Treatment and Research Centre, St. Joseph’s Healthcare, and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral NeurosciencesMcMaster UniversityCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyTrent UniversityPeterboroughCanada

Personalised recommendations