Investigation of the internal structure and dynamics of cellulose by 13C-NMR relaxometry and 2DPASS-MAS-NMR measurements
Internal structure and dynamics of commercial and natural cellulose were studied by measuring chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) parameters, and spin–lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) at each and every chemically different carbon nuclear site. CSA parameters were measured by 13C two-dimensional phase adjusted spinning sideband (2DPASS) cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) NMR experiment. Site specific spin–lattice relaxation time was measured by Torchia-CP method. Anisotropy parameters of C4 and C6 regions are higher than C1 and C235 regions and asymmetry of C4 line is lower than any other carbon site. The higher values of CSA parameters of C4 and C6 nuclei arise due to the rotation of O4–C4, C1–O4, O5–C5–C6–O6 and C4–C5–C6–O6 bonds at torsion angles ψ, Φ, χ and χ′ respectively and the influence of interchain and intrachain hydrogen bondings. Two distinct peaks are also observed for C4 and C6 resonance line position—one peak arises primarily due to the nuclei in amorphous region and another one arises due to the same nuclei resides in paracrystalline region. The spin–lattice relaxation time and the CSA parameters are different at these two distinct peak positions of C4 and C6 line. Molecular correlation time of each and every chemically different carbon site was calculated with the help of CSA parameters and spin–lattice relaxation time. The molecular correlation time of the amorphous region is one order of magnitude less than the crystalline region. The distinction between amorphous and paracrystalline regions of cellulose is more vividly portrayed by determining spin–lattice relaxation time, CSA parameters, and molecular correlation time at each and every chemically different carbon site. This type of study correlating the structure and dynamics of cellulose will illuminate the path of inventing biomimetic materials.
Keywords2D PASS MAS NMR Cellulose Relaxation Molecular correlation time
The author Manasi Ghosh is indebted to Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India (File No. EMR/2016/000249), and UGC-BSR (File No. 30-12/2014(BSR)) for financial support. We are also grateful to Sophisticated Instrumentation Centre (SIC) of Dr. Hari Singh Gour Central University for providing high resolution solid state NMR facility.
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