Journal of Biomolecular NMR

, Volume 60, Issue 2–3, pp 157–168 | Cite as

NMR-based structural biology enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic field

  • Eline J. Koers
  • Elwin A. W. van der Cruijsen
  • Melanie Rosay
  • Markus Weingarth
  • Alexander Prokofyev
  • Claire Sauvée
  • Olivier Ouari
  • Johan van der Zwan
  • Olaf Pongs
  • Paul Tordo
  • Werner E. Maas
  • Marc BaldusEmail author


Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has become a powerful method to enhance spectroscopic sensitivity in the context of magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We show that, compared to DNP at lower field (400 MHz/263 GHz), high field DNP (800 MHz/527 GHz) can significantly enhance spectral resolution and allows exploitation of the paramagnetic relaxation properties of DNP polarizing agents as direct structural probes under magic angle spinning conditions. Applied to a membrane-embedded K+ channel, this approach allowed us to refine the membrane-embedded channel structure and revealed conformational substates that are present during two different stages of the channel gating cycle. High-field DNP thus offers atomic insight into the role of molecular plasticity during the course of biomolecular function in a complex cellular environment.


NMR Dynamic nuclear polarization Membrane Protein Solid-state NMR 



Ambient temperature


Dynamic nuclear polarization


Low temperature


Magic angle spinning


Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement


Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance


Transmembrane helix


Magnetic resonance imaging


Selectivity filter


Proton-driven spin diffusion







We thank Mark Daniels for excellent technical support. This work was supported by NWO (grants 722.012.002 to MW and 700.11.344 and 700.58.102 to MB), DFG (Po137, 40-1 and 41-1) and NIH (NIH/NIGNS grant GM087519).

Supplementary material

10858_2014_9865_MOESM1_ESM.docx (9.3 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 9574 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eline J. Koers
    • 1
  • Elwin A. W. van der Cruijsen
    • 1
  • Melanie Rosay
    • 2
  • Markus Weingarth
    • 1
  • Alexander Prokofyev
    • 1
    • 3
  • Claire Sauvée
    • 4
  • Olivier Ouari
    • 4
  • Johan van der Zwan
    • 1
  • Olaf Pongs
    • 3
  • Paul Tordo
    • 4
  • Werner E. Maas
    • 2
  • Marc Baldus
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.NMR Spectroscopy, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Bruker BioSpin CorporationBillericaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physiology, Faculty of MedicineSaarland UniversityHomburgGermany
  4. 4.CNRS, ICR UMR 7273Aix-Marseille UniversitéMarseilleFrance

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