Journal of Biomolecular NMR

, Volume 55, Issue 3, pp 291–302

Pulse design for broadband correlation NMR spectroscopy by multi-rotating frames



We present a method for designing radio-frequency (RF) pulses for broadband or multi-band isotropic mixing at low power, suitable for protein NMR spectroscopy. These mixing pulses are designed analytically, rather than by numerical optimization, by repeatedly constructing new rotating frames of reference. We show how pulse parameters can be chosen frame-by-frame to systematically reduce the effective chemical shift bandwidth, but maintain most of the effective J-coupling strength. The effective Hartmann-Hahn mixing condition is then satisfied in a multi-rotating frame of reference. This design method yields multi-band and broadband mixing pulses at low RF power. In particular, the ratio of RF power to mixing bandwidth for these pulses is lower than for existing mixing pulses, such as DIPSI and FLOPSY. Carbon-carbon TOCSY experiments at low RF power support our theoretical analysis.


NMR Pulse design Isotropic mixing TOCSY HOHAHA 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Coote
    • 1
  • Haribabu Arthanari
    • 2
  • Tsyr-Yan Yu
    • 2
  • Amarnath Natarajan
    • 3
  • Gerhard Wagner
    • 2
  • Navin Khaneja
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Engineering and Applied SciencesHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular PharmacologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Eppley Institute for Cancer ResearchUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

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