Journal of Biomolecular NMR

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 235–244 | Cite as

Numerical design of RN n ν symmetry-based RF pulse schemes for recoupling and decoupling of nuclear spin interactions at high MAS frequencies

  • Christian Herbst
  • Jirada Herbst
  • Jörg Leppert
  • Oliver Ohlenschläger
  • Matthias Görlach
  • Ramadurai RamachandranEmail author


An approach for the efficient implementation of RN n ν symmetry-based pulse schemes that are often employed for recoupling and decoupling of nuclear spin interactions in biological solid state NMR investigations is demonstrated at high magic-angle spinning frequencies. RF pulse sequences belonging to the RN n ν symmetry involve the repeated application of the pulse sandwich {R ϕ R −ϕ}, corresponding to a propagator U RF = exp(−i4ϕI z), where ϕ = πν/N and R is typically a pulse that rotates the nuclear spins through 180° about the x-axis. In this study, broadband, phase-modulated 180° pulses of constant amplitude were employed as the initial ‘R’ element and the phase-modulation profile of this ‘R’ element was numerically optimised for generating RN n ν symmetry-based pulse schemes with satisfactory magnetisation transfer characteristics. At representative MAS frequencies, RF pulse sequences were implemented for achieving 13C–13C double-quantum dipolar recoupling and through bond scalar coupling mediated chemical shift correlation and evaluated via numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The results from these investigations are presented here.


MAS Solid state NMR Chemical shift correlation Symmetry-based RF pulse schemes 



This study has been funded in part by a grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (GO474/6-1). The FLI is a member of the Science Association ‘Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’ (WGL) and is financially supported by the Federal Government of Germany and the State of Thuringia.

Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Herbst
    • 1
  • Jirada Herbst
    • 2
  • Jörg Leppert
    • 1
  • Oliver Ohlenschläger
    • 1
  • Matthias Görlach
    • 1
  • Ramadurai Ramachandran
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Research group Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age ResearchFritz Lipmann InstituteJenaGermany
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer, Faculty of ScienceUbon Ratchathani UniversityUbon RatchathaniThailand

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