Journal of Biomolecular NMR

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 175–184 | Cite as

Recoupling and decoupling of nuclear spin interactions at high MAS frequencies: numerical design of CN n ν symmetry-based RF pulse schemes

  • Christian Herbst
  • Jirada Herbst
  • Anika Kirschstein
  • Jörg Leppert
  • Oliver Ohlenschläger
  • Matthias Görlach
  • Ramadurai RamachandranEmail author


The CN n ν class of RF pulse schemes, commonly employed for recoupling and decoupling of nuclear spin interactions in magic angle spinning solid state NMR studies of biological systems, involves the application of a basic “C” element corresponding to an RF cycle with unity propagator. In this study, the design of CN n ν symmetry-based RF pulse sequences for achieving 13C–13C double-quantum dipolar recoupling and through bond scalar coupling mediated 13C–13C chemical shift correlation has been examined at high MAS frequencies employing broadband, constant-amplitude, phase-modulated basic “C” elements. The basic elements were implemented as a sandwich of a small number of short pulses of equal duration with each pulse characterised by an RF phase value. The phase-modulation profile of the “C” element was optimised numerically so as to generate efficient RF pulse sequences. The performances of the sequences were evaluated via numerical simulations and experimental measurements and are presented here.


MAS Solid state NMR Chemical shift correlation Symmetry-based RF pulse schemes 



This study has been funded in part by a grant from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (GO474/6-1). The FLI is a member of the Science Association ‘Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’ (WGL) and is financially supported by the Federal Government of Germany and the State of Thuringia.

Supplementary material

10858_2009_9334_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (79 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 80 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Herbst
    • 1
  • Jirada Herbst
    • 2
  • Anika Kirschstein
    • 1
  • Jörg Leppert
    • 1
  • Oliver Ohlenschläger
    • 1
  • Matthias Görlach
    • 1
  • Ramadurai Ramachandran
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Group Biomolecular NMR Spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age ResearchFritz Lipmann InstituteJenaGermany
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics, Statistics and ComputerFaculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani UniversityUbon RatchathaniThailand

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