Chemical shifts of amino acids in proteins are the most sensitive and easily obtainable NMR parameters that reflect the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of the protein. In recent years, chemical shifts have been used to identify secondary structure in peptides and proteins, and it has been confirmed that 1Hα, 13Cα, 13Cβ, and 13C′ NMR chemical shifts for all 20 amino acids are sensitive to their secondary structure. Currently, most of the methods are purely based on one-dimensional statistical analyses of various chemical shifts for each residue to identify protein secondary structure. However, it is possible to achieve an increased accuracy from the two-dimensional analyses of these chemical shifts. The 2DCSi approach performs two-dimension cluster analyses of 1Hα, 1HN, 13Cα, 13Cβ, 13C′, and 15NH chemical shifts to identify protein secondary structure and the redox state of cysteine residue. For the analysis of paired chemical shifts of 6 data sets, each of the 20 amino acids has its own 15 two-dimension cluster scattering diagrams. Accordingly, the probabilities for identifying helix and extended structure were calculated by using our scoring matrix. Compared with existing the chemical shift-based methods, it appears to improve the prediction accuracy of secondary structure identification, particularly in the extended structure. In addition, the probability of the given residue to be helix or extended structure is displayed, allows the users to make decisions by themselves.
Chemical shift Protein secondary structure identification Two-dimension cluster