Suturable regenerated silk fibroin scaffold reinforced with 3D-printed polycaprolactone mesh: biomechanical performance and subcutaneous implantation
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The menisci have crucial roles in the knee, chondroprotection being the primary. Meniscus repair or substitution is favored in the clinical management of the meniscus lesions with given indications. The outstanding challenges with the meniscal scaffolds include the required biomechanical behavior and features. Suturability is one of the prerequisites for both implantation and implant survival. Therefore, we proposed herein a novel highly interconnected suturable porous scaffolds from regenerated silk fibroin that is reinforced with 3D-printed polycaprolactone (PCL) mesh in the middle, on the transverse plane to enhance the suture-holding capacity. Results showed that the reinforcement of the silk fibroin scaffolds with the PCL mesh increased the suture retention strength up to 400%, with a decrease in the mean porosity and an increase in crystallinity from 51.9 to 55.6%. The wet compression modulus values were significantly different for silk fibroin, and silk fibroin + PCL mesh by being 0.16 ± 0.02, and 0.40 ± 0.06 MPa, respectively. Both scaffolds had excellent interconnectivity (>99%), and a high water uptake feature (>500%). The tissue’s infiltration and formation of new blood vessels were assessed by means of performing an in vivo subcutaneous implantation of the silk fibroin + PCL mesh scaffolds that were seeded with primary human meniscocytes or stem cells. Regarding suturability and in vivo biocompatibility, the findings of this study indicate that the silk fibroin + PCL mesh scaffolds are suitable for further studies to be carried out for meniscus tissue engineering applications such as the studies involving orthotopic meniscal models and fabrication of patient-specific implants.
This article is a result of the project FROnTHERA (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000023), supported by Norte Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). This study was also supported by the FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network “MultiScaleHuman: Multi-scale Biological Modalities for Physiological Human Articulation” (Contract number MRTN-CT-2011-289897). The authors thank Dr. Fatima Raquel Maia, Dr. Raphael F. Canadas, Dr. Alain da Silva Morais, Dr. Sandra Pina, Dr. Isabel B. Leonor, and Ms. Teresa Oliveira for their support. I. F. Cengiz thanks the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) for the Ph.D. scholarship (SFRH/BD/99555/2014). J. M. Oliveira also thanks the FCT for the funds provided under the program Investigador FCT 2015 (IF/01285/2015). The funding sources had no role in the study design, the data collection, analysis, interpretation, or the preparation and submission of this work for publication.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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