Exploring the effect of sintering temperature on naturally derived hydroxyapatite for bio-medical applications

  • S. Aarthy
  • D. Thenmuhil
  • G. Dharunya
  • P. ManoharEmail author
Biomaterials Synthesis and Characterization Original Research
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biomaterials Synthesis and Characterization


The current work describes the influence of sintering temperatures on biological and mechanical properties of naturally derived hydroxyapatite (HAp). The phase pure hydroxyapatite developed from the goat bone has been obtained by optimizing the calcination temperature from 600–900 °C. Further, HAp calcined at 900 °C was subjected to various sintering temperature (1100–1400 °C). Finally, the influence of sinter temperatures on mechanical (hardness) and biological properties (in vitro bioactivity, MTT and hemocompatibility assays) were ascertained. In respect of biological properties, it came to know that 1300 °C is optimum sinter temperature, which has enhanced apatite growth with the superior cell viability and hemo-compatible behavior. However, sample sintered at 1400 °C delivers maximum hardness. Thus, the hydroxyapatite extracted from goat bone can find better applications in bio-medical engineering as analogous to the existing man-made synthetic materials.


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Aarthy
    • 1
  • D. Thenmuhil
    • 1
  • G. Dharunya
    • 2
  • P. Manohar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Ceramic Technology, Alagapa College of TechnologyAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Biomaterials DepartmentCSIR-Central Leather Research InstituteAdyar, ChennaiIndia

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