Fabrication of sulphonated poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate hydrogel as a bone grafting scaffold
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To improve the biological performance of poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel as an injectable bone grafting scaffold, sodium methallyl sulphonate (SMAS) was incorporated into PEGDA hydrogel. The physiochemical properties of the resultant polymers were assessed via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), swelling ratio, zeta potential, surface morphology, and protein adsorption analysis. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the hydrogel to evaluate the effect of the sulphonated modification on their attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. The results of FTIR and zeta potential evaluations revealed that SMAS was successfully incorporated into PEGDA. With increasing concentrations of SMAS, the swelling ratio of the hydrogels increased in deionized water but stayed constant in phosphate buffered saline. The protein adsorption also increased with increasing concentration of SMAS. Moreover, the sulphonated modification of PEGDA hydrogel not only enhanced the attachment and proliferation of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells but also up-regulated alkaline phosphatase activity as well as gene expression of osteogenic markers and related growth factors, including collagen type I, osteocalcin, runt related transcription factor 2, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and transforming growth factor beta 1. These findings indicate that the sulphonated modification could significantly improve the biological performance of PEGDA hydrogel. Thus, the sulphonated PEGDA is a promising scaffold candidate for bone grafting.
This study was supported by Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZR2018BH015).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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