Early morphological changes in tissues when replacing abdominal wall defects by bacterial nanocellulose in experimental trials
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Experimental trials were done on five dogs to explore if an anterior abdominal wall defect could be repaired using wet (99.9%), compact BNC membranes produced by the Мedusomyces gisevii Sa-12 symbiotic culture. The abdominal wall defect was simulated by middle-midline laparotomy, and a BNC membrane was then fixed to open aponeurotic edges with blanket suture (Prolene 4-0, Ethicon). A comparative study was also done to reinforce the aponeurotic defect with both the BNC membrane and polypropylene mesh (PPM) (Ultrapro, Ethicon). The materials were harvested at 14 and 60 days postoperative to visually evaluate their location in the abdominal tissues and evaluate the presence of BNC and PPM adhesions to the intestinal loops, followed by histologic examination of the tissue response to these prosthetics. The BNC exhibited good fixation to the anterior abdominal wall to form on the 14th day a capsule of loose fibrin around the BNC. Active reparative processes were observed at the BNC site at 60 days post-surgery to generate new, stable connective-tissue elements (macrophages, giant cells, fibroblasts, fibrin) and neocapillaries. Negligible intraperitoneal adhesions were detected between the BNC and the intestinal loops as compared to the case of PPM. There were no suppurative complications throughout the postsurgical period. We noticed on the 60th day after the BNC placement that collagenous elements and new capillary vessels were actively formed in the abdominal wall tissues, generating a dense postoperative cicatrix whose intraperitoneal adhesions to the intestinal loops were insignificant compared to the PPM graft.
The research on biosynthesis of bacterial nanocellulose was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Project # 17-19-01054).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Animal studies were performed with the approval of the local Ethics Committee of the Altai State Medical University of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The methodology for using bacterial nanocellulose to replace defects of the anterior abdominal wall in animal experiments passed expert evaluation at a meeting of the Ethics Committee of the Altai State Medical University (Barnaul city, Russia). The Committee discussed the experimental study design and animal care to conform to the accepted international standards and guidelines. All the Ethics Committee members (100%) unanimously approved this study.
Human and animal rights
Dogs were housed and maintained in accordance with international standards on animal care, animal husbandry, and humane treatment (European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes, Strasbourg, 1986).
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