Preparation of flexible bone tissue scaffold utilizing sea urchin test and collagen
Gonads of sea urchin are consumed in Japan and some countries as food and most parts including its tests are discarded as marine wastes. Therefore, utilization of them as functional materials would reduce the waste as well as encourage Japanese fishery. In this study, magnesium containing calcite granules collected from sea urchin tests were hydrothermally phosphatized and the obtained granules were identified as approximately 82% in mass of magnesium containing β-tricalcium phosphate and 18% in mass of nonstoichiometric hydroxyapatite, i.e., a biphasic calcium phosphate, maintaining the original porous network. Shape-controlled scaffolds were fabricated with the obtained biphasic calcium phosphate granules and collagen. The scaffolds showed good open porosity (83.84%) and adequate mechanical properties for handling during cell culture and subsequent operations. The MG-63 cells showed higher proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in comparison to a control material, the collagen sponge with the same size. Furthermore, cell viability assay proved that the scaffolds were not cytotoxic. These results suggest that scaffold prepared using sea urchin test derived calcium phosphate and collagen could be a potential candidate of bone void fillers for non-load bearing defects in bone reconstruction as well as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.
The authors would like to thank Mr. Taira Sato for his help with the ICP-AES analysis. The authors express their sincere thanks to Prof. Yagi Hiroki, Otaru University of commerce, Japan and Higashi-shakotan fishery cooperative for providing sea urchin tests. This study in part was supported by revitalizing a local community by the development of new materials with sea urchin shells, the program for a proportion of practical uses with fish industries waste resources, Shakotan, Hokkaido, Japan.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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