3D-printed porous titanium changed femoral head repair growth patterns: osteogenesis and vascularisation in porous titanium
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Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a major cause of morbidity, and total hip arthroplasty is both traumatic and expensive. Here, we created a gelatine scaffold embedded in uniquely shaped, 3D-printed porous titanium parts, which could attract and promote the proliferation of osteoblasts as well as bone regeneration, as the extracellular matrix (ECM) does in vivo. Interestingly, after hybridisation with platelets, the scaffold exhibited a low yet considerable rate of stable, safe and long-term growth factor release. Additionally, a novel ONFH model was constructed and verified. Scaffolds implanted in this model were found to accelerate bone repair. In conclusion, our scaffold successfully simulates the ECM and considerably accelerates bone regeneration, in which platelets play an indispensable role. We believe that platelets should be emphasised as carriers that may be employed to transport drugs, cytokines and other small molecules to target locations in vivo. In addition, this novel scaffold is a useful material for treating ONFH.
An overview of the novel scaffold mimicking the extracellular environment in bone repair. a and b: A gelatine scaffold was cross-linked and freeze-dried within 3D-printed porous titanium. c: Platelets were coated onto the gelatine microscaffold after freeze-drying platelet-rich plasma. d: The microscaffold supported the migration of cells into the titanium pores and their subsequent growth, while the platelets slowly released cell factors, exerting bioactivity. Open image in new window
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to the Central Laboratory and Laboratory Animal Centre of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and the National High-tech R&D Programme of China for the provided support (863 Programme) (2015AA020316, 2015AA033601). We would also like to thank Uppsala University in Sweden for the support provided in the preparation and verification of the scaffolds.
XW and ZW designed the research. WZ performed the in vitro experiments and manufactured the materials. YZ performed the animal research. WZ, QM and YW wrote the main manuscript and prepared the figures, which were reviewed by all authors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The animal experiments in this study were approved by the Ethical Inspection Committee of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (XHDW-2015-0034). All methods were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations.
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