Vasculogenic potential evaluation of bottom-up, PCL scaffolds guiding early angiogenesis in tissue regeneration

  • L. RossiEmail author
  • C. Attanasio
  • E. Vilardi
  • M. De Gregorio
  • P. A. Netti
Tissue Engineering Constructs and Cell Substrates Original Research
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Tissue Engineering Constructs and Cell Substrates


Vascularization is a key factor in the successful integration of tissue engineered (TE) grafts inside the host body. Biological functions of the newly formed tissue depend, in fact, on a reliable and fast spread of the vascular network inside the scaffold. In this study, we propose a technique for evaluating vascularization in TE constructs assembled by a bottom-up approach. The rational, ordered assembly of building blocks (BBs) into a 3D scaffold can improve vessel penetration, and—unlike most current technologies—is compatible with the insertion of different elements that can be designed independently (e.g. structural units, growth factor depots etc.). Poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds composed of orderly and randomly assembled sintered microspheres were used to assess the degree of vascularization in a pilot in vivo study. Scaffolds were implanted in a rat subcutaneous pocket model, and retrieved after 7 days. We introduce three quantitative factors as a measure of vascularization: the total percentage of vascularization, the vessels diameter distribution and the vascular penetration depth. These parameters were derived by image analysis of microcomputed tomographic scans of biological specimens perfused with a radiopaque polymer. The outcome of this study suggests that the rational assembly of BBs helps the onset and organization of a fully functional vascular network.


Selective Laser Sinter Vessel Volume Scaffold Architecture Scaffold Porosity Internal Vascularization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank the staff of the Center of Biotechnologies of the A.O.R.N. “A. Cardarelli” for the kind support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All animal experiments were performed in accordance with the Directive 2010/63/EU.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Rossi
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. Attanasio
    • 1
  • E. Vilardi
    • 1
  • M. De Gregorio
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. A. Netti
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Health CareIIT@CRIB, Istituto Italiano di TecnologiaNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal ProductionsUniversity of Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly

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