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Multiwall carbon nanotubes/polycaprolactone scaffolds seeded with human dental pulp stem cells for bone tissue regeneration

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Abstract

Conventional approaches to bone regeneration rarely use multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) but instead use polymeric matrices filled with hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses. In this study, we prepared composites of MWCNTs/polycaprolactone (PCL) for bone regeneration as follows: (a) MWCNTs randomly dispersed on PCL, (b) MWCNTs aligned with an electrical field to determine if the orientation favors the growing of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs), and (c) MWCNTs modified with β-glycerol phosphate (BGP) to analyze its osteogenic potential. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of MWCNTs and BGP on PCL, whereas the increase in crystallinity by the addition of MWCNTs to PCL was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. A higher elastic modulus (608 ± 4.3 MPa), maximum stress (42 ± 6.1 MPa) and electrical conductivity (1.67 × 10−7 S/m) were observed in non-aligned MWCNTs compared with the pristine PCL. Cell viability at 14 days was similar in all samples according to the live/dead assay, but the 21 day cell proliferation, measured by MTT was higher in MWCNTs aligned with BGP. Von Kossa and Alizarin red showed larger amounts of mineral deposits on MWCNTs aligned with BGP, indicating that at 21 days, this scaffold promotes osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs.

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Acknowledgments

M. L. Flores-Cedillo thanks CONACYT for a PhD grant (290748) and research grant 266123. The technical assistance of R. F. Vargas-Coronado, A. May-Pat and A. I. Oliva-Aviles of CICY, and J. Delgado-García and A. Martínez-Borquez of DCIUGTO is also acknowledgments.

Author information

Correspondence to J. V. Cauich-Rodríguez.

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Flores-Cedillo, M.L., Alvarado-Estrada, K.N., Pozos-Guillén, A.J. et al. Multiwall carbon nanotubes/polycaprolactone scaffolds seeded with human dental pulp stem cells for bone tissue regeneration. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 27, 35 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-015-5640-y

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Keywords

  • Contact Angle
  • Osteogenic Differentiation
  • Bioactive Glass
  • Bone Tissue Regeneration
  • Spherulite Formation