Oxygen diffusion in marine-derived tissue engineering scaffolds
- 402 Downloads
This paper addresses the computation of the effective diffusivity in new bioactive glass (BG) based tissue engineering scaffolds. High diffusivities facilitate the supply of oxygen and nutrients to grown tissue as well as the rapid disposal of toxic waste products. The present study addresses required novel types of bone tissue engineering BG scaffolds that are derived from natural marine sponges. Using the foam replication method, the scaffold geometry is defined by the porous structure of Spongia Agaricina and Spongia Lamella. These sponges present the advantage of attaining scaffolds with higher mechanical properties (2–4 MPa) due to a decrease in porosity (68–76 %). The effective diffusivities of these structures are compared with that of conventional scaffolds based on polyurethane (PU) foam templates, characterised by high porosity (>90 %) and lower mechanical properties (>0.05 MPa). Both the spatial and directional variations of diffusivity are investigated. Furthermore, the effect of scaffold decomposition due to immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on the diffusivity is addressed. Scaffolds based on natural marine sponges are characterised by lower oxygen diffusivity due to their lower porosity compared with the PU replica foams, which should enable the best oxygen supply to newly formed bone according the numerical results. The oxygen diffusivity of these new BG scaffolds increases over time as a consequence of the degradation in SBF.
KeywordsFoam Simulated Body Fluid Effective Diffusivity Bioactive Glass Marine Sponge
This research was supported under the Australian Research Council Discovery Projects funding scheme (Project Number DP130101377). In addition, this research was carried out in the framework of the EU ITN FP-7 Project “GlaCERCo”. The authors would like to acknowledge its financial support.
- 3.Mulvana H. New materials and technologies for healthcare. In: Hench LL, Jones JR, Fenn MB, editors. London: Imperial College Press; 2011, p. 520, ISBN: 978-1-84816-558-8; Ultrasound in medicine & biology. vol. 40; 2//2014. p. 457.Google Scholar
- 12.Karande TS. Effect of scaffold architecture on diffusion of oxygen in tissue engineering constructs. PhD, The University of Texas at Austin, 2007.Google Scholar
- 18.Boccardi E, Philippart A, Juhasz-Bortuzzo JA, Novajra G, Vitale-Brovarone C, Boccaccini AR. Characterisation of Bioglass®-based foams developed via replication of natural marine sponges. Adv. Appl Ceram. 2015 (accepted for publication).Google Scholar
- 22.Belova IV, Murch GE, Fiedler T, Öchsner A. Lattice-based walks and the Monte Carlo method for addressing mass, thermal and elasticity problems. Defect Diffus Forum. 2008;283–286:3–23.Google Scholar
- 24.Fiedler T, Belova IV, Öchsner A, Murch GE. A review on thermal lattice Monte Carlo analysis. In: Delgado JM, editor. Current trends in chemical engineering. Houston: Studium Press LCC; 2010. p. 105–30.Google Scholar
- 26.Maxwell JC. A treatise on elasticity and magnetism. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1892.Google Scholar