A unified in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of bioactive glasses and their variants
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The aim of this study was to propose and validate a new unified method for testing dissolution rates of bioactive glasses and their variants, and the formation of calcium phosphate layer formation on their surface, which is an indicator of bioactivity. At present, comparison in the literature is difficult as many groups use different testing protocols. An ISO standard covers the use of simulated body fluid on standard shape materials but it does not take into account that bioactive glasses can have very different specific surface areas, as for glass powders. Validation of the proposed modified test was through round robin testing and comparison to the ISO standard where appropriate. The proposed test uses fixed mass per solution volume ratio and agitated solution. The round robin study showed differences in hydroxyapatite nucleation on glasses of different composition and between glasses of the same composition but different particle size. The results were reproducible between research facilities. Researchers should use this method when testing new glasses, or their variants, to enable comparison between the literature in the future.
KeywordsSimulated Body Fluid Bioactive Glass Glass Powder Round Robin Particle Size Range
The International Commission on Glass is thanked for its support of TC04 and its members. The European Forum of New Glass Application is also thanked for its support. The authors would like to thank Vivoxid (Turku, Finland), Mo-Sci (Rolla, MO), RepRegen Ltd (London, UK) and Novabone LLC (Alachua, FL) for generously providing samples.
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