Quaternary Ti–20Nb–10Zr–5Ta alloy during immersion in simulated physiological solutions: formation of layers, dissolution and biocompatibility
- 216 Downloads
Samples of the quaternary Ti–20Nb–10Zr–5Ta alloy were immersed in Hanks’ simulated physiological solution and in minimum essential medium (MEM) for 25 days. Samples of Ti metal served as controls. During immersion, the concentration of ions dissolved in MEM was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, while at the end of the experiment the composition of the surface layers was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their morphology by scanning electron microscopy equipped for chemical analysis. The surface layer formed during immersion was comprised primarily of TiO2 but contained oxides of alloying elements as well. The degree of oxidation differed for different metal cations; while titanium achieved the highest valency, tantalum remained as the metal or is oxidized to its sub-oxides. Calcium phosphate was formed in both solutions, while formation of organic-related species was observed only in MEM. Dissolution of titanium ions was similar for metal and alloy. Among alloying elements, zirconium dissolved in the largest quantity. The long-term effects of alloy implanted in the recipient’s body were investigated in MEM, using two types of human cells—an osteoblast-like cell line and immortalized pulmonary fibroblasts. The in vitro biocompatibility of the quaternary alloy was similar to that of titanium, since no detrimental effects on cell survival, induction of apoptosis, delay of growth, or change in alkaline phosphatase activity were observed on incubation in MEM.
KeywordsInductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry Minimum Essential Medium Metal Extract Quaternary Alloy Unexposed Control
This work was performed within the European transnational MNT ERA-Net II project (acronym SURFUNCTI). Support of the EU (ERDF) and Romanian Government infrastructure POS-CCE O 2.2.1 Project INFRANANOCHEM—No. 19/2009 is also gratefully acknowledged, as is the financial support by the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of the Republic of Slovenia. Human osteosarcoma (HOS), a human osteoblast-like cell line, was kindly donated by Prof. J. Marc, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ljubljana. The authors thank Dr. V.S. Šelih of the National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana, Slovenia, for the ICP-MS measurements and Dr. R. Milačič of the Jožef Stefan Institute for fruitful discussion.
- 6.Samuel S, Nag S, Nasrazadani S, Ukirde V, El Bouanani M, Mohandas A, Nguyen K, Banarjee R. Corrosion resistance and in vitro response of laser-deposited Ti–Nb–Zr–Ta alloys for orthopedic implant applications. J Biomed Mater Res. 2010;94A:1251–6.Google Scholar
- 14.Payer M, Lorenzoni M, Jakse N, Kirmeier R, Dohr G, Stopper M, Pertl C. Cell growth on different zirconia and titanium surface textures: a morpholgic in vitro study. J Dental Implant (in German). 2010;4:338–51.Google Scholar
- 16.IARC Monograph on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Human, vol 74, Surgical Implants and Other Foreign Bodies (1999).Google Scholar
- 17.Health-based Reassessment of Administrative Occupational Exposure Limits. Zirconium and zirconium compounds. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands; 2002.Google Scholar
- 23.Milošev I, Kapun B, Šelih VS. The effect of fluoride ions on the corrosion behaviour of Ti metal, and Ti–6Al–7Nb and Ti–6Al–4V alloys in artificial saliva. Acta Chim Slov. 2013;60:543–55.Google Scholar
- 28.Roth V. 2006, http://www.doubling-time.com/compute.php.
- 29.Wagner CD, Naumkin AV, Kraut-Vass A, Allison JW, Powell CJ, Rumble JR Jr. NIST X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Database, NIST Standard Reference Database 20, Version 3.5, Data compiled and evaluated. http://srdata.nist.gov/xps/.
- 31.Moulder JF, Stickle WF, Sobol PE, Bomben KD. In: Chastain J, King Jr RC, editors. Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Eden Prairie: Physical Electronics; 1995.Google Scholar
- 36.Abdel Rahim MA, Abdel Rahman AA, Khalil MW. Anion incorporation and its effect on the dielectric constant and growth rate of zirconium oxides. J Appl Electrochem. 1996;26(8):1037–43.Google Scholar
- 40.ISO 10993-5; 2009, p. 34. Available from http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=36406.
- 41.Wataha JC, Lockwood PE, Nelson SK, Bouillaguet S. Long-term cytotoxicity of dental casting alloys. Int J Prosthodont. 1999;12:242–8.Google Scholar
- 42.Owen TA, Aronov M, Shalhoub V, Barone LM, Wilming L, Tassinari MS, Kennedy MB, Pockwinse S, Lian JB, Stein GS. Progressive development of the rat osteoblast phenotype in vitro: reciprocal relationships in expression of genes associated with osteoblast proliferation and differentiation during formation of the bone extracellular matrix. J Cell Physiol. 1990;143:420–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar